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This week, we're updating our course layouts and descriptions. Presentation and materials always gently change over time, but just occasionally there's a need to make a step change to clear out some of the old and roll in the new. That's now happening - but over a long and complex site it's not instant and you'll see sections of the site changing up to and including 19th September.

See also [here] for status update
pack and unpack

Posted by admin (Graham Ellis), 25 November 2004
Unpack in PHP differs from the unpack functions in languages such as Perl in that it returns an associative array, with the keys named in the decode or encoding string.  Very neat!   Here's an example where we take a fixed format data file from our mail server and analyse each line to count the spam and regular emails.

Working sample at


// Spam tables - sample PHP script from Well House Consultants
// Handles our internal "wash.log" data file format

$now = time()/24/60/60;
$fh = fopen("$_SERVER[DOCUMENT_ROOT]/../wash.log","r");
$nlines = 0;
$maxage = 28;

while (1) {
       $nlines ++;
       $line = fgets($fh,1024);
       if (feof($fh)) break;
       $about = unpack("A21from/A21to/A43subject/A3status/".
       $daysago = ($about[when]/24/60/60);
       $age = floor($now - $daysago);
       $status = trim($about[status]) == "Yes" ? 1 : 0;
for ($k=0; $k<count($tab)-1; $k++) {
       if ($k > $maxage) break;
       $rows .= ("<tr>");
       $rows .= ("<td>less than $k day".(($k==1)?"":"s")." old</td>");
       $rows .= ("<td>".$tab[$k][1]." spams</td>");
       $rows .= ("<td>".$tab[$k][0]." allowed through</td>");
       $rows .= ("</tr>\n");
       $nvalid += $tab[$k][0];
       $nspam += $tab[$k][1];
$stamp = date("r");
$percentage = sprintf("%.1f%%",100.0*$nvalid/($nvalid+$nspam));
<html><head><title>Spam Tables - <?= $stamp ?> </title></head>
<body bgcolor=#CCFFFF><h1>Spam Tables</h1>
<b>Spam counts for last month - mail server</b><br>
Report timestamped <?= $stamp ?><br><br>
<table border=1><?= $rows ?></table><br>
<?= $nvalid ?> valid and
<?= $nspam ?> spam emails.
<?= $percentage ?> valid.<br><br>
<a href=>Copyright
Well House Consultants</a>,
<?= date("Y") ?><br>
email: <a></a><br>
web: <a href=></a>

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