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Assigning variables by value and reference

Posted by Paula (Paula), 25 October 2005
Hi,

I've just seen this example regarding the assigning of variables by value and by reference.

<?php
$variable1 = "Ryan";
$variable2 = $variable1;            // assign by value
print( "$variable1, $variable2<br>" );      // prints "Ryan, Ryan"
$variable2 = "Scott";
print( "$variable1, $variable2<br>" );      // prints "Ryan, Scott"
$variable3 = &$variable1;            // assign by reference
print( "$variable1, $variable3<br>" );      // prints "Ryan, Ryan"
$variable3 = "Katie";
print( "$variable1, $variable3<br>" );      //prints "Katie, Katie"
?>

I don't understand how this works. That the ampersand makes the variable take its original value makes sense - it's that the variable it's resetting - variable1 - was never changed.

Should the line reading "$variable3 = &$variable1;" not be "$variable3 = &$variable2;" for this example to work?

Thanks,
Paula

Posted by admin (Graham Ellis), 25 October 2005
Hi, Paula ... welcome to Opentalk.

A good question on an oft-confusing subject.

If you assign a variable in the "normal" way, you're copying the contents of the variable so that you end up with another variable and another copy of the value.   Change one of the two variables created in this way, and you've only changed that one.

If you use the extra & character, you're assigning a second name to the same variable .... so that if you change the contents via either name, both variables will apparently be changed;  really, they're the same variable though ... with two names.

Code:
<?php

$first = "Hello";
$second = $first;
$first = "Greetings";  // Does NOT change $second

$person = "You";
$pname = &$person;
$person = "Paula";  // Changes both $person and $pname

print ("$first $person and welcome\n");
print ("$second $pname and welcome\n");
?>


Gives me

Code:
Greetings Paula and welcome
Hello Paula and welcome



Posted by Paula (Paula), 25 October 2005
Ah! Now it makes sense!

How would such a thing be useful though?

Thanks a lot,
Paula

Posted by admin (Graham Ellis), 25 October 2005
It's useful because you can write a whole lot of complicated code to deal with a variable such as "$current", then point $current at each of the elements of an array you want to process in turn ... welcome to the beginnings of the OO world  

Posted by Paula (Paula), 26 October 2005
Mmmm, that sounds dead useful. Thanks a lot for that.



Paula



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