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Recursion and special collections in Python
Applying OO design techniques and best practise example from a Well House Consultants training course
More on Applying OO design techniques and best practise [link]

This example is described in the following article(s):
   • A good example of recursion - a real use in Python - [link]

This example references the following resources:
http://www.wellho.net/data/family.tsv

Source code: tree.py Module: Y116
# Recursion and special collections in Python

""" This is an example written to correlate family tree data (at http://www.wellho.net/data/family.tsv ) and
produce an ancestor tree for any individual who's data is present. This is posted at an early stage of
development (a "spike solution") as it illustrated a good use of recursion in Python, and also the use of
a man-dimentional collection - both theings which will often feature in your larger progras, but which are
rarely found in practical short demonstration pieces """


import re
import sys

class person(object):

        field_defs = \
                ("birthYear","deathYear","fatherID","gender","motherID","name","personID",
                "sp1ID","sp2ID","sp3ID","sp4ID",
                "fatherBirthYear","fatherOverride","fatherDeathYear",
                "motherBirthYear","motherOverride","motherDeathYear",
                "sp1name","sp2name","sp3name","sp4name")

        # In order to avoid the need for lots of accessors, I've chosen to keep all of my
        # attributes in a dict and refer to them by field name

        def __init__(this,record):
                this.data = {}
                stuff = record.split('\t')
                for k in range(len(person.field_defs)):
                        fname = person.field_defs[k]
                        this.data[fname] = stuff[k].strip()

        # Our data has "unknown date in year" marked as 1st January. Yuk - what if someone
        # really arrived or left on 1st January - but this is the data I have. These methods
        # clean up the data for presentation

        def getdeathYear(this):
                val = this.get("deathYear")
                val = re.sub("^1/1/","",val)
                return val
        def getbirthYear(this):
                val = this.get("birthYear")
                val = re.sub("^1/1/","",val)
                return val

        def get(this,what):
                return this.data[what]

        # How a person rcord is to be displayed - for user purposes (__str__) and for
        # debug / programmer purposes (__repr__).

        def __str__(this):
                return (this.get("personID") + " " + this.get("name") +
                        " (" + this.getbirthYear() + " to " + this.getdeathYear() + " )")
        def __repr__(this):
                return (this.get("personID") + " " + this.get("name"))

        # Getting parent tree
        # recursive routine - note internal call of function back to itself

        def getParentTree(this,pool):
                p = ["*","*",this]
                for pNumber in range(2):
                        each = ("fatherID","motherID")[pNumber]
                        if this.data[each] == "":
                                p[pNumber] = None
                        else:
                                p[pNumber] = person.locate(this.data[each],pool).getParentTree(pool)
                return p

        # For effiency, this routine should set up a cached dict keyed on personID
        # This first spike solution is horrible inefficient!

        @staticmethod
        def locate(finding,pool):
                found = None
                if finding:
                        for p in pool:
                                if p.data["personID"] == finding:
                                        found = p
                return found

class ancestorTree(object):

""" Object to handle collection of people (ancestor tree) """

        def __init__(this,base,pool):
                this.tree = base.getParentTree(pool)

        def __str__(this):
                result = ancestorTree.parentPrint(this.tree,0)
                result = re.sub("\n+","\n",result)
                return result

        # Note that "parentPrint" is recursive - generating insets at each level of recursion for pretty display

        @staticmethod
        def parentPrint(triplet,generation):
                if triplet:
                        result = str(generation) + ": " + ("\t" * generation) +str(triplet[2]) + "\n"
                        if triplet[0]:
                                result += ancestorTree.parentPrint(triplet[0],generation+1) + "\n"
                        else:
                                result += str(generation+1) + ": " + ("\t" * (generation+1)) + "[away] " + triplet[2].get("fatherOverride") + "\n"
                        if triplet[1]:
                                result += ancestorTree.parentPrint(triplet[1],generation+1) + "\n"
                        else:
                                result += str(generation+1) + ": " + ("\t" * (generation+1)) + "[away] " + triplet[2].get("motherOverride") + "\n"
                else:
                        result = (str(generation) + ": " + ("\t" * generation) + '-' + "\n")
                return result

        def getFullName(this):
                return this.tree[2].get("name")

# ----------------- And here's the program that actually uses our family tree / ancestor logic

# Read in all the people into a pool. No particular order, so just buffer them

pool = []
for p in open("family.tsv"):
        pool.append(person(p))

# Handle command line paramaters

names = sys.argv[1:]
if not names:
        print "usage " + sys.argv[0] + " name [name [name]]"
        print " " + sys.argv[0] + " -a"
        print " " + sys.argv[0] + " -s"
        exit()

# Allow for "-a" option for "all"
if len(names) == 1 and names[0] == "-a":
                names = []

# Allow for "-s" option for "summary"
summary = 0
if len(names) == 1 and names[0] == "-s":
                names = []
                summary = 1

# Either print a summary (list of all people for whom we have data) or ancestor tree(s) for all or some people

if summary:
        for p in pool:
                print p
else:
        for p in pool:
                ptree = ancestorTree(p,pool)
                called = ptree.getFullName()
                for name in names:
                        if not re.findall(name,called,re.I): break
                else:
                        print ptree
Learn about this subject
This module and example are covered on the following public courses:
 * Learning to program in Python
 * Python Programming
 * Intermediate Python
Also available on on site courses for larger groups

Books covering this topic
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Other Examples
This example comes from our "Applying OO design techniques and best practise" training module. You'll find a description of the topic and some other closely related examples on the "Applying OO design techniques and best practise" module index page.

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