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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
Iterators - expressions tha change each time you call them

If you're programming and you write the same expression into your code twice without changing any of the variables, you're simply writing the same expression twice, right? For example, here's a piece of Perl code that exits if $userval is 0, but adds it in to a total and keep going if it's not zero.

if ($userval == 0) { 
print "job done\n";
exit;
}
$total += $userval;


If you're reading from a file, though, things are different. Refer to the same file handle twice, and you'll get the next line read in each time - thus:


if (<FH> == 0) { 
print "job done\n";
exit;
}
$total += <FH>;


will read from a file handle TWICE - if the first line read is zero, the program exits. If the first line was NOT zero, a second line is read and that value in that line is added to $total.

Why the difference? Because the read from operator - <> in Perl - is what we call an iterator, and each time we refer to it, it moves on to the next value.

This one often catches new programmers ... the solution is to read the value just once and save it into a variable - thus:

$userval = <FH>;
if ($userval == 0) {
print "job done\n";
exit;
}
$total += $userval;

(written 2006-04-27)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
P207 - Perl - File Handling
  [12] How many people in a room? - (2004-08-12)
  [114] Relative or absolute milkman - (2004-11-10)
  [255] STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR and DATA - Perl file handles - (2005-03-23)
  [616] printf - a flawed but useful function - (2006-02-22)
  [618] Perl - its up to YOU to check your file opened - (2006-02-23)
  [867] Being sure to be positive in Perl - (2006-09-15)
  [1312] Some one line Perl tips and techniques - (2007-08-21)
  [1416] Good, steady, simple example - Perl file handling - (2007-10-30)
  [1442] Reading a file multiple times - file pointers - (2007-11-23)
  [1467] stdout v stderr (Tcl, Perl, Shell) - (2007-12-10)
  [1709] There is more that one way - Perl - (2008-07-14)
  [1841] Formatting with a leading + / Lua and Perl - (2008-10-15)
  [1860] Seven new intermediate Perl examples - (2008-10-30)
  [1861] Reactive (dynamic) formatting in Perl - (2008-10-31)
  [2233] Transforming data in Perl using lists of lists and hashes of hashes - (2009-06-12)
  [2405] But I am reading from a file - no need to prompt (Perl) - (2009-09-14)
  [2818] File open and read in Perl - modernisation - (2010-06-19)
  [2821] Chancellor George Osborne inspires Perl Program - (2010-06-22)
  [2833] Fresh Perl Teaching Examples - part 2 of 3 - (2010-06-27)
  [3326] Finding your big files in Perl - design considerations beyond the course environment - (2011-06-14)
  [3548] Dark mornings, dog update, and Python and Lua courses before Christmas - (2011-12-10)
  [3830] Traversing a directory in Perl - (2012-08-08)
  [3839] Spraying data from one incoming to series of outgoing files in Perl - (2012-08-15)


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May day away
Disc Partitioning
Erin Brent - rest in peace
Copying files and preserving ownership
Iterators - expressions tha change each time you call them
Minature Cyclists only - limited headroom
As I walked in to Oxford
Extremes costs of getting on line
Catch up weekend
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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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