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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
Changing @INC - where Perl loads its modules

Where does Perl load modules from in its use and require statements? It loads them from directorys in a special list called @INC, from files with a .pm extension in those directorys.

When Perl's installed, @INC is set to a list of directorys that includes generic locations for its standard modules, some release specific directories, and "." the current directory, which are checked in order each time you do a use or require.

Some ways to modify @INC

** You can add to the list in @INC by using the -I command line option:
perl -I /Users/grahamellis/jan06 i2
says "run the perl program i2, additionally checking the jan06 directory for modules"

** You can add to the list within your program by doing so in a BEGIN block prior to the use statements:
BEGIN {
push @INC,"/Users/grahamellis/jan06";
}
use demo;
print "hello world";

Rather curiously, use calls are run at compile time not at run time ... but then so are BEGIN blocks ... so you put your manipulation of @INC into one of those to get it to happen early enough.

** You can add to the beginning of the list by setting the PERL5LIB environment variable prior to running your program:
export PERL5LIB=/Users/grahamellis/jan06
and you can use a colon separated list for that if you want to pre-pend more than one directory.


Footnote - don't you just love Perl's "There's more than one way to do it". Thanks to Dave Cross - author of various Perl books - for reminding me of use lib; - see the comments he's added for a description of this in his own words
(written 2006-02-02, updated 2006-06-05)

Commentatorsays ...
Dave Cross:There is also the "use lib" pragma - this is probably the most common approach. And $PERL5LIB can also be called just $PERLLIB.
(comment added 2006-02-02 06:43:36)
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
P218 - Perl - More Objects
  [227] Bellringing and Programming and Objects and Perl - (2005-02-25)
  [246] When to bless a Perl variable - (2005-03-15)
  [531] Packages in packages in Perl - (2005-12-16)
  [592] NOT Gone phishing - (2006-02-05)
  [656] Think about your design even if you don't use full UML - (2006-03-24)
  [831] Comparison of Object Oriented Philosophy - Python, Java, C++, Perl - (2006-08-13)
  [930] -> , >= and => in Perl - (2006-11-18)
  [1217] What are factory and singleton classes? - (2007-06-04)
  [1320] Perl for Larger Projects - Object Oriented Perl - (2007-08-25)
  [1435] Object Oriented Programming in Perl - Course - (2007-11-18)
  [1664] Example of OO in Perl - (2008-06-03)
  [1665] Factory method example - Perl - (2008-06-04)
  [1819] Calling base class constructors - (2008-10-03)
  [1949] Nuclear Physics comes to our web site - (2008-12-17)
  [2427] Operator overloading - redefining addition and other Perl tricks - (2009-09-27)
  [2651] Calculation within objects - early, last minute, or cached? - (2010-02-26)
  [2717] The Multiple Inheritance Conundrum, interfaces and mixins - (2010-04-11)
  [2811] Igloos melt in the summer, but houses do not - (2010-06-15)
  [2876] Different perl examples - some corners I rarely explore - (2010-07-18)
  [2972] Some more advanced Perl examples from a recent course - (2010-09-27)
  [3097] Making Perl class definitions more conventional and shorter - (2010-12-20)
  [3098] Learning Object Orientation in Perl through bananas and perhaps Moose - (2010-12-21)
  [3377] What do I mean when I add things in Perl? - (2011-08-02)
  [3581] Perl - calls to methods that use => - what do they mean? - (2012-01-16)
  [3941] Building an object based on another object in Perl - (2012-12-03)
  [4096] Perl design patterns example - (2013-05-20)
  [4098] Using object orientation for non-physical objects - (2013-05-22)
  [4356] Object factories in C++, Python, PHP and Perl - (2014-12-19)
  [4366] Changing what operators do on objects - a comparison across different programming languages - (2014-12-26)

P209 - Subroutines in Perl
  [96] Variable Scope - (2004-10-22)
  [308] Call by name v call by value - (2005-05-11)
  [357] Where do Perl modules load from - (2005-06-24)
  [775] Do not duplicate your code - (2006-06-23)
  [969] Perl - $_ and @_ - (2006-12-07)
  [1163] A better alternative to cutting and pasting code - (2007-04-26)
  [1202] Returning multiple values from a function (Perl, PHP, Python) - (2007-05-24)
  [1782] Calling procs in Tcl and how it compares to Perl - (2008-09-02)
  [1784] Global - Tcl, PHP, Python - (2008-09-03)
  [1826] Perl - Subs, Chop v Chomp, => v , - (2008-10-08)
  [1850] Daisy the Cow and a Pint of Ginger Beer - (2008-10-21)
  [1860] Seven new intermediate Perl examples - (2008-10-30)
  [1921] Romeo and Julie - (2008-12-04)
  [2069] Efficient calls to subs in Perl - avoid duplication, gain speed - (2009-03-07)
  [2550] Do not copy and paste code - there are much better ways - (2009-12-26)
  [2833] Fresh Perl Teaching Examples - part 2 of 3 - (2010-06-27)
  [2929] Passing a variable number of parameters in to a function / method - (2010-08-20)
  [3066] Separating groups of variables into namespaces - (2010-11-24)
  [3574] Perl functions such as chop change their input parameters - (2012-01-10)
  [3833] Learning to use existing classes in Perl - (2012-08-10)


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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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Comment: "Might be worth pointing out -I is capital i not lowercase L ..."
Visitor Ranking 4.0 (5=excellent, 1=poor)

Comment by Marc Flamank (published 2011-01-16)
Might be worth pointing out -I is capital i not lowercase L [#3841]

Comment by Lael Daire (published 2010-03-04)
I wanted to have my main program in a base directory, and the modules in a subdir. Based off your example, I ended up making this:

BEGIN {
@cmd = split(/\//,$0); # gets the program path
pop @cmd; # strips the program name
$libpath = join("\/",@cmd)."/modulelib"; # appends module subdirectory
unshift(@INC,$libpath); # puts modulelib as the first directory to search
}

It worked nicely in my ActivePerl environment and AIX environment. [#3479]

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