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From and Import in Python - where is the module loaded from?

Python's from and import statements both require you to give the name of the source from where you'll be loading extra code. And for a module held in a single file, thats's a file name but without extension.

So if I say import fourth, Python will look for a file called fourth.py. Where it looks is governed by a list of places in sys.path so it will look in the current folder and a number of other standard places too. Where a .pyc or .pyo file is found (in a directory called __pycache__ in Python 3) that will be used instead if it's got a more recent timestamp that the .py file, or if no .py file exists. And if no .pyc file exists, Python will write one having done the import so that it's available for next time.

This is good, and in the case of from the name of the file the extra code is read from need not be referred to again. However, with an import, the name of the import needs to be added as a namespace in front of the member names when they are referred to - poor practise as it glues file names to the internals of the code. By using import ... as this issue can be overcome by renaming the namespace being read. For example
  import fourth as block
to bring in code from fourth.py / fourth.pyc / fourth.pyo. But then it can be referred to under the block namespace:
  passTheBox.append(block.box(x+layer+1,y+layer+1,z+layer+1))

Recommonedation is to use import rather than from for almost all of your loading of extra code. From mixes up the names you're loading into the current namespace, and as soon as you start getting involved with serious code you're likely to find that you're getting name conflicts. Think back to your schooldays, and think if there were two children with the same forename in your class ...

(written 2016-11-06)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
Y105 - Python - Functions, Modules and Packages
  [4722] Embedding more complex code into a named block - (2016-11-04)
  [4719] Nesting decorators - (2016-11-02)
  [4662] Recursion in Python - the classic example - (2016-03-07)
  [4645] What are callbacks? Why use them? An example in Python - (2016-02-11)
  [4448] What is the difference between a function and a method? - (2015-03-04)
  [4441] Reading command line parameters in Python - (2015-02-23)
  [4410] A good example of recursion - a real use in Python - (2015-02-01)
  [4407] Python - even named code blocks are objects - (2015-01-28)
  [4361] Multiple yields and no loops in a Python generator? - (2014-12-22)
  [4212] Python functions - an introduction to how they work - (2013-11-16)
  [4161] Python varables - checking existance, and call by name or by value? - (2013-08-27)
  [4029] Exception, Lambda, Generator, Slice, Dict - examples in one Python program - (2013-03-04)
  [3945] vargs in Python - how to call a method with unknown number of parameters - (2012-12-06)
  [3931] Optional positional and named parameters in Python - (2012-11-23)
  [3885] Default local - a good choice by the author of Python - (2012-10-08)
  [3852] Static variables in Python? - (2012-08-29)
  [3766] Python timing - when to use a list, and when to use a generator - (2012-06-16)
  [3695] Functions are first class variables in Lua and Python - (2012-04-13)
  [3662] Finding all the unique lines in a file, using Python or Perl - (2012-03-20)
  [3474] Python Packages - groupings of modules. An introduction - (2011-10-11)
  [3472] Static variables in functions - and better ways using objects - (2011-10-10)
  [3464] Passing optional and named parameters to python methods - (2011-10-04)
  [3459] Catching the fishes first? - (2011-09-27)
  [3280] Passing parameters to Python functions - the options you have - (2011-05-07)
  [3159] Returning multiple values from a function call in various languages - a comparison - (2011-02-06)
  [2998] Using an exception to initialise a static variable in a Python function / method - (2010-10-13)
  [2994] Python - some common questions answered in code examples - (2010-10-10)
  [2929] Passing a variable number of parameters in to a function / method - (2010-08-20)
  [2878] Program for reliability and efficiency - do not duplicate, but rather share and re-use - (2010-07-19)
  [2766] Optional and named parameters to Python functions/methods - (2010-05-15)
  [2718] Python - access to variables in the outer scope - (2010-04-12)
  [2520] Global and Enable - two misused words! - (2009-11-30)
  [2506] Good example of recursion in Python - analyse an RSS feed - (2009-11-18)
  [2481] Sample code with errors in it on our web site - (2009-10-29)
  [2440] Optional parameters to Python functions - (2009-10-07)
  [2439] Multiple returns from a function in Python - (2009-10-06)
  [2011] Conversion of OSI grid references to Eastings and Northings - (2009-01-28)
  [1879] Dynamic code - Python - (2008-11-11)
  [1871] Optional and named parameters in Python - (2008-11-05)
  [1870] What to do with a huge crop of apples - (2008-11-04)
  [1869] Anonymous functions (lambdas) and map in Python - (2008-11-04)
  [1790] Sharing variables with functions, but keeping them local too - Python - (2008-09-09)
  [1784] Global - Tcl, PHP, Python - (2008-09-03)
  [1464] Python Script - easy examples of lots of basics - (2007-12-08)
  [1202] Returning multiple values from a function (Perl, PHP, Python) - (2007-05-24)
  [1163] A better alternative to cutting and pasting code - (2007-04-26)
  [1134] Function / method parameters with * and ** in Python - (2007-04-04)
  [959] It's the 1st, not the 1nd 1rd or 1th. - (2006-12-01)
  [949] Sludge off the mountain, and Python and PHP - (2006-11-27)
  [913] Python - A list of methods - (2006-11-03)
  [912] Recursion in Python - (2006-11-02)
  [900] Python - function v method - (2006-10-20)
  [821] Dynamic functions and names - Python - (2006-08-03)
  [775] Do not duplicate your code - (2006-06-23)
  [749] Cottage industry or production line data handling methods - (2006-06-07)
  [745] Python modules. The distribution, The Cheese Shop and the Vaults of Parnassus. - (2006-06-05)
  [668] Python - block insets help with documentation - (2006-04-04)
  [561] Python's Generator functions - (2006-01-11)
  [418] Difference between import and from in Python - (2005-08-18)
  [386] What is a callback? - (2005-07-22)
  [340] Code and code maintainance efficiency - (2005-06-08)
  [308] Call by name v call by value - (2005-05-11)
  [303] Lambdas in Python - (2005-05-06)
  [294] Python generator functions, lambdas, and iterators - (2005-04-28)
  [105] Distance Learning - (2004-10-31)
  [96] Variable Scope - (2004-10-22)


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Some other Articles
Visiting Los Alamitos Bay Yacht Club
Learning from travelling further afield
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Writing Python 2 such that Python 3 is easy
From and Import in Python - where is the module loaded from?
Conditional operators in Python
When to check an object type - Python isinstance example
Celebrating our diversity rather than discriminating for it
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