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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
Formatting and outputting your own classes in C++

When you output an object in C++, you pass it to an output stream such as std::cout or cout. If the thing you're outputting is a string, or an integer, float, some other primitive or a standard system object, that's all you need to do and the formatting is taken care of for you. But what if you're outputting your own object?

The first option you have is to call methods that will convery your object's values into primitives which you ca output usig standard techniques. The alternative is for you to overload the operator<< method for the ostream class to provide an extra output method to handle your output. Here's an example of such a method, together with a method in the class we're handling to do the actual formatting:

  void Mtbs::print(ostream *os)
    { *os << "Attention every " << value << " cups [" << descriptor << "]" ;
    }
  
  ostream &operator<<(ostream &os, Mtbs &mt) {
    mt.print(&os);
    return os;
    }


Complete example [here]
(written 2015-10-30)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
C235 - C and C based languages - I/O in C++
  [1478] Some new C programming examples - files, structs, unions etc - (2007-12-19)
  [1675] Comparing Objects in C++ - (2008-06-13)
  [3124] C++ - putting the language elements together into a program - (2011-01-08)
  [3252] C++ - unknown array size, unknown object type. Help! - (2011-04-17)
  [3390] Printing objects in C++ - (2011-08-13)
  [3807] Reading (and writing) files in C++ - (2012-07-18)
  [3810] Reading files, and using factories to create vectors of objects from the data in C++ - (2012-07-21)
  [4562] Left shift operator on an output stream object - C++ - (2015-10-30)


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