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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
Associated Classes - using objects of one class within another

Wheh you're designing an object oriented class, you'll often use other objects within it. For example, you may design a Ferry object and within it use a Time object (for when it's scheduled to leave, perhaps):
  Ferry *mersey = new Ferry(new Time(17,45),14);

There's really no special syntax involved with this - so this is just a short article to remind you that, yes, you can do this, indeed you're encouraged to do so as it makes for more robust code and cleaner calling with objects being passed around within objects. You'll sometimes here the objects within being referred to as "associated objects" or perhaps "contained objects"; you need to remember that this is nothing to do with subclasses, inheritance, and polymorphism - that's a whole different way that classes can be related to other classes.

Sample - in C++, using the above line - [here].
(written 2012-07-21, updated 2012-08-11)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
C233 - C and C based languages - OO in C++ - beyond the basics
  [798] References and Pointers in C++ - (2006-07-10)
  [801] Simple polymorphism example - C++ - (2006-07-14)
  [831] Comparison of Object Oriented Philosophy - Python, Java, C++, Perl - (2006-08-13)
  [925] C++ - just beyond the basics. More you can do - (2006-11-14)
  [1217] What are factory and singleton classes? - (2007-06-04)
  [1572] C - structs and unions, C++ classes and polymorphism - (2008-03-13)
  [1674] What a lot of files! (C++ / Polymorphism demo) - (2008-06-12)
  [1819] Calling base class constructors - (2008-10-03)
  [2577] Complete teaching example - C++, inheritance, polymorphism - (2010-01-15)
  [2845] Objects and Inheritance in C++ - an easy start - (2010-07-01)
  [3056] C++ - a complete example with polymorphism, and how to split it into project files - (2010-11-16)
  [3123] C++ objects - some short, single file demonstrations - (2011-01-07)
  [3124] C++ - putting the language elements together into a program - (2011-01-08)
  [3142] Private and Public - and things between - (2011-01-22)
  [3244] C and C++ - preprocess, compile, load, run - what each step is for - (2011-04-12)
  [3251] C++ - objects that are based on other objects, saving coding and adding robustness - (2011-04-17)
  [3508] Destructor methods in C++ - a primer - (2011-11-05)
  [3979] Extended and Associated objects - what is the difference - C++ example - (2013-01-18)
  [4356] Object factories in C++, Python, PHP and Perl - (2014-12-19)
  [4375] Final examples for 2014 - and a look at our 2015 training course options - (2014-12-31)
  [4377] Designing a base class and subclasses, and their extension, in C++ - (2015-01-01)
  [4559] When do I use the this keyword in C++? - (2015-10-29)
  [4560] Variables, Pointers and References - C and C++ - (2015-10-29)


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Returning guests - a sign of a good product. Cream teas and hotel rooms.
Injection Attacks - PHP, SQL, HTML, Javascript - and how to neutralise them
The Melksham News - July 2012 - Part 1, Campus and Chamber of Commerce
Associated Classes - using objects of one class within another
Reading files, and using factories to create vectors of objects from the data in C++
Dwarf Exception Unwind Info
Can you put names to faces?
Reading (and writing) files in C++
2011 Census results - initial figures for Wiltshire.
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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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