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What is a metatable? How do I set one up? How do I use them? Lua

What is a metatable?

In Lua, you can hold a whole bundle of information about something in a table, which gives you a convenient "handle" to that information - be that information in the form of values, or behaviours (i.e. conventional variable of code). This is illustrated in earlier articles on Lua Tables and on Using Lua tables as objects.

Let's look a stage further. As well as unique pieces of information associated with a particular table / object, you'll want to have common members - pieces of code that run on every table of a certain type (in OO terminology, that's methods that can be run on every member of a class). And this is where Lua Metatables come in.

A metatable is itself a table that contains variables and code. It can be linked into / called up from any other table (a parent table, if you like) by using the setmetatable function. And once that metatable has been set, references made to members that do not exist in the main (parent) table will be passed on to the metatable. This isn't actually a one-to-one mapping - making it a bit harder for me to explain, but much more flexible when I come to use it.

Let's take a look at the standard behaviour of a table:

  function newtrain(length) -- set up objectish table
    local newone = {}
    newone.cars = length
    return newone
  southampton = newtrain(2)
  cheltenham = newtrain(3)
  print (southampton, cheltenham) -- just prints address

And here's the output:

  munchkin:lm12 grahamellis$ lua kitten
  table: 0x100106bb0 table: 0x100106c20
  munchkin:lm12 grahamellis$

Sample code - [here]

How do I create a Metatable?

Let's now say that I want ALL the tables created by the newtrain function to print out nicely, and I also want the abiity to define how to add such table togethers. Rather than define all the extra functinallity lots of times, in Lua I can define a metabable and then say (in a single call for each of my parent tables) that the train tables all behave in the way defined in my metatable. Let's take a look at how that works:

Firstly, I'll create a table (just an ordinary table) which I'm going to use for my additional functionallity.

  demo_metatable = {}

I'll then add some code that's to be shared to that table:

  function demo_metatable.__add(this, that)
    local newone = {}
    newone.cars = this.cars + that.cars
    setmetatable(newone, demo_metatable) -- so that we can piggyback additions
    return newone
  function demo_metatable.___tostring(this)
    return "A train of " .. this.cars .. " carriages"

And finally I'll call up that table in my newtrain function as its metatable

  function newtrain(length)
    local newone = {}
    newone.cars = length
    setmetatable(newone, demo_metatable) -- so that we add them
    return newone

How do I use a Metatable?

Any tables that I now create via the newtrain function will be "tuned" with the features of the metatable called demo_metatable ... adding together two tables (using the + operator) has been defined as producing a new table with "cars" members added, and I've also defined how to print such tables.

So I can now write some code to use these functions and the metatable:

  southampton = newtrain(2)
  cheltenham = newtrain(3)
  service = southampton + cheltenham
  print (southampton, cheltenham, service)

and the behaviour is modified by the __add function so we don't get:

  lua: tabby:27: attempt to perform arithmetic on global 'southampton' (a table value)
  stack traceback:
    tabby:27: in main chunk
    [C]: ?
  munchkin:lm12 grahamellis$

but rather an addition is performed, and our printouts saying:

  table: 0x100106c20

are replaced by the output from __tostring:

  munchkin:lm12 grahamellis$ lua tabby
  A train of 2 carriages A train of 3 carriages A train of 5 carriages
  munchkin:lm12 grahamellis$

Sample code [here]

Adding elements of other names to a metatable

What if I want to add another name of my own choice to every table of a certain type? I can do it, but not directly by adding that name to the metatable. Instead, I have to provide a function called __index in the metatable, which can then branch out and act as appropriate.

So if i want this to work:

  for _,v in pairs(options) do
    print (v, v:getlength(), v.bums, v.capacity, v.earlobes)

I might add the following to add the required extra definitions to the metatable:

  function demo_metatable.__index(whichmaintable,whatcalled)
    if (whatcalled == "getlength") then return demo_metatable.glen end
    if (whatcalled == "bums") then return whichmaintable.cars * 73 end
    if (whatcalled == "capacity") then return math.floor(whichmaintable.bums * 1.4) end
    return "teabag" -- default
  function demo_metatable.glen(source)
    return (source.cars * 23)

Sample code [here]

(written 2012-05-12, updated 2012-05-13)

Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
U107 - Object Orientation - the Lua way
  [4753] Lua, Tcl, Python, C and C++ courses - at our Melksham HQ or on your site - forward from July 2017 - (2017-07-02)
  [4573] Classic style OO code - in Lua - (2015-11-05)
  [4572] Tables with values and code in Lua - looks like an object? - (2015-11-05)
  [4273] Dot or Colon separator between table name and member in Lua - what is the difference? - (2014-05-06)
  [4248] Metatables, Metamethods, classes and objects in Lua - (2014-03-18)
  [4117] Is Lua an Object Oriented language? - (2013-06-15)
  [3727] Using Lua tables as objects - (2012-05-11)
  [3694] Special __ methods you can use in Lua metatables - (2012-04-12)
  [3683] Weak references in Lua - what are they, and why use them? - (2012-04-04)
  [3524] Metaclasses (Python) and Metatables (Lua) - (2011-11-17)
  [3396] Tables as Objects in Lua - a gentle introduction to data driven programming - (2011-08-17)
  [3142] Private and Public - and things between - (2011-01-22)
  [2710] __index and __newindex in Lua - metatable methods - (2010-04-05)
  [2703] Lua Metatables - (2010-04-02)
  [2701] Is Lua an Object Oriented language? - (2010-04-01)
  [2455] Lua examples - coroutines, error handling, objects, etc - (2009-10-15)
  [2359] A fresh example - objects the Lua way - (2009-08-13)
  [2318] For Lua Programmers AND for Town Planners - (2009-08-02)
  [1819] Calling base class constructors - (2008-10-03)
  [1743] First class functions in Lua lead to powerful OO facilities - (2008-08-07)
  [1699] If you are learning Lua, here are some more examples - (2008-07-06)
  [1692] Towards Object Oriented Programming in Lua - (2008-06-30)

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