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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
Using Make for a distribution

Although Make has traditionally been used to build C and C++ programs, its uses are far wider - here's a new example in which I've used it to test a whole series of Python programs, and if they all test correctly to build a distribution (tar) file.

Scenario - three Python programs / classes for distribution. Each has some test code - first.py tests from first principles, second.py tests using doctest and third.py tests using unittest. Of course, I would normally be consistent in using one test harness or another, but this is a demonstration.

The makefile (full source [here]):

  version=1.2
  
  pyproject_$(version).tgz: first.tmp second.tmp third.tmp
      tar czf pyproject_$(version).tgz project
      @echo "BUILD COMPLETED"
  
  # Simple Python Program
  
  first.tmp: project/first.py
      python project/first.py
      @touch first.tmp
  
  # Next example uses Python's doctest
  
  second.tmp: project/second.py
      python project/second.py
      @touch second.tmp
  
  # Next example uses Python's unittest
  
  third.tmp: project/third.py
      python project/third.py
      @touch third.tmp
  
  clean:
      @rm -f *.tmp
      @rm -f *.tgz
      @echo "cleaned up"


Each of the Python test classes is written to return a successful status (0, because we're at shell level) if the test passes, and a failed status (1) if the test fails, so that the build will only complete through to distribution if all tests pass.

In first.py (full source [here]), the test I have added onto the end of the test harness is as follows:
  if tpc != 495: exit(1)
  exit(0)

where tpc is my test variable that should end up with a result of "495" if the code runs right.

Doctest return a status line that we can analyse similarly:
  if status.find("failed=0") != -1: return 0
  return 1

(my doctest code is written within a function, thus "return" rather than "exit").
See full source [here]

Unittest automatically exits with a success / failure status, so all I need to run my test is:
  if __name__ == '__main__':
      unittest.main()

See full source [here]

Let's run that - initially with a bug (for testing) in the doctest example:

  wizard:pyproject graham$ make
  python project/first.py
  First Great Western cl 150 160 2
  First Avon and Somerset 81 1
  Faresaver 29 1
  South West Trains cl 159 225 3
  --- TOTAL --- 495 7
  python project/second.py
  **********************************************************************
  File "project/second.py", line 4, in __main__.factorial
  Failed example:
    [factorial(n) for n in range(6)]
  Expected:
    [1, 1, 2, 7, 24, 120]
  Got:
    [1, 1, 2, 6, 24, 120]
  **********************************************************************
  1 items had failures:
    1 of 1 in __main__.factorial
  ***Test Failed*** 1 failures.
  make: *** [second.tmp] Error 1
  wizard:pyproject graham$


Fixing the bug and trying again - you'll note the first test is NOT repeated:

  wizard:pyproject graham$ make
  python project/second.py
  python project/third.py
  ...
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  Ran 3 tests in 0.000s
  
  OK
  tar czf pyproject_1.2.tgz project
  BUILD COMPLETED
  wizard:pyproject graham$


and running again:

  wizard:pyproject graham$ make
  make: `pyproject_1.2.tgz' is up to date.
  wizard:pyproject graham$


I'm adding a section on make onto the end of next week's private Python course - the example above will be used during that course. Also happy to spend up to day going through Make on other private courses ...
(written 2012-03-17)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
Y212 - Python - Code testing, patterns, profiles and optimisation.
  [235] Preparation for a day's work - (2005-03-04)
  [1140] Python GTK - Widget, Packing, Event and Feedback example - (2007-04-09)
  [1146] __new__ v __init__ - python constructor alternatives? - (2007-04-14)
  [1148] Python decorators - wrapping a method call in extra code - (2007-04-15)
  [1555] Advanced Python, Perl, PHP and Tcl training courses / classes - (2008-02-25)
  [2123] Using Python with OpenOffice - (2009-04-09)
  [2616] Defining a static method - Java, Python and Ruby - (2010-02-01)
  [3441] Pressing ^C in a Python program. Also Progress Bar. - (2011-09-15)
  [3442] A demonstration of how many Python facilities work together - (2011-09-16)
  [3464] Passing optional and named parameters to python methods - (2011-10-04)
  [3478] Testing your Python classes with the unittest package - how to - (2011-10-14)
  [4090] Test Driven Development in Python - Customer Comes First - (2013-05-16)
  [4326] Learning to program - comments, documentation and test code - (2014-11-22)
  [4344] Python base and inherited classes, test harness and unit testing - new examples - (2014-12-07)
  [4446] Combining tests into suites, and suites into bigger suites - Python and unittest - (2015-03-01)
  [4470] Testing in Python 3 - unittest, doctest and __name__ == __main__ too. - (2015-04-21)
  [4538] Flask and unittest - hello web app test world - (2015-10-15)
  [4540] Unittest of a Flask application including forms - (2015-10-15)
  [4542] The principle of mocking - and the Python Mock package - (2015-10-17)
  [4617] Pytest - starting example - (2016-01-07)
  [4618] Pytest - second example beyond hello world - (2016-01-08)
  [4716] Profiling your Python program - (2016-11-01)

A168 - Web Application Deployment - Compiler and development tools
  [694] Ant and Make - (2006-04-22)
  [1671] Compiling C programs with gcc - an overview - (2008-06-10)
  [2674] Make and makefiles - a commented example to help you learn - (2010-03-12)
  [3053] Make - automating the commands for building and installing - (2010-11-16)
  [3632] What is Make? - (2012-03-02)
  [3651] Makefile - some basics, and a demonstration - (2012-03-13)
  [3652] A Complete makefile example - (2012-03-14)
  [3666] Makefile variables - defined internally, from the command line and from the environment - (2012-03-22)
  [4013] Web Frameworks - nested templates - (2013-02-22)
  [4585] What is make? What is gcc? - (2015-11-28)


Back to
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or
Horse's mouth home
Forward to
Welcome to Melksham - our new communities
Some other Articles
Finding all the unique lines in a file, using Python or Perl
Keeping forum and blog comments clean
A Pivotal Incident - learning how to welcome your guests
Welcome to Melksham - our new communities
Using Make for a distribution
Basham Festival, Melksham, early August 2012 - a welcome
TrainWest 2012 - 14th and 15th April, Melksham, Wiltshire
Sights and scenes - more London trip pictures
On a sunny afternoon in London
What is happening in 59 days time in Melksham?
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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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