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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
Trapping errors in Tcl - the safety net that catch provides

What could possibly go wrong when you open a file in a program? Lots of things, actually.
* You could try to open a file in directory you cannot access
* You could try to read from a file that does not exist
* You could try to read from something that's not a plain file - e.g. a directory
* You could be trying to read from a file over which you don't have read access
And I'm sure this list is incomplete ...

And if you're writing a program that should be robust, you need to consider all of the above - including that comment "this list is incomplete".

Tests in your program to check that things will work are often a good idea. But they will only test the circumstances that you have come up with - in other words, they are not "fail safe". In some languages, you can check the return status from your file open command and see if it worked - that's a better solution but, alas, in some circumstances / languages such as Tcl your open command won't even return to you to tidy up if it fails, and you need something else. And that's where you need to use exceptions - keywords like try are usually used.

In Tcl - which I have been teaching this week - there's a catch command, and this allows you to wrap a command that may fail, getting back a true value if that failure occurs, and (optionally) a variable containing the error message so that you can report it if you wish. Here's an example:

    if {[catch {set fh [open $day r]} excuse]} {
      puts "Failed to open - $excuse"
      continue }


Full example [here] from our Learning to program in Tcl course.
(written 2012-01-06, updated 2012-01-07)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
T214 - Tcl/Tk - Other Facilities in Tcl
  [239] What and why for the epoch - (2005-03-08)
  [364] pu daily and p hourly - (2005-06-30)
  [366] Error handling in Tcl through catch - (2005-07-02)
  [461] Shortened interactive commands - (2005-10-11)
  [748] Getting rid of variables after you have finished with them - (2006-06-06)
  [782] Converting between Hex and Decimal in Tcl - (2006-06-28)
  [1277] AgtInvoke - a command to drive Agilent Tcl software extensions - (2007-07-26)
  [1334] Stable sorting - Tcl, Perl and others - (2007-09-06)
  [1338] Handling Binary data in Tcl (with a note on C) - (2007-09-09)
  [2467] Tcl - catching an error before your program crashes - (2009-10-22)
  [3287] Exceptions - Tcl style - (2011-05-12)
  [3583] Expanding a list of parameters in Tcl - {*} and eval - (2012-01-17)
  [4207] Exception handling in Tcl - (2013-11-14)
  [4523] Catching failed commands and not crashing the program in Tcl - (2015-10-10)
  [4525] What does Tcl do if you try to run a command that is not defined? - (2015-10-10)
  [4762] Coverage map in Tcl - how many times has each proc been called? - (2017-09-28)

T203 - Tcl/Tk - Conditionals and Loops
  [210] Joining lists in Tcl. Indirect variables in Tcl. - (2005-02-12)
  [1401] Tcl - using [] or {} for conditions in an if (and while) - (2007-10-23)
  [1477] Decisions - small ones, or big ones? - (2007-12-18)
  [1696] Saying NOT in Perl, PHP, Python, Lua ... - (2008-07-04)
  [2261] Tcl - nice and nasty - (2009-06-29)
  [2471] A short form of if ... then ... else - (2009-10-23)
  [2681] Tcl - a great engineering language - (2010-03-17)
  [3189] Tcl - the danger of square brackets in a while command - (2011-03-02)
  [3397] Does a for loop evaluate its end condition once, or on every iteration? - (2011-08-18)
  [3571] Comparing loop commands in Tcl - (2012-01-06)
  [4322] Learning to Program - the conditional statement (if) - (2014-11-21)
  [4323] Learning to program - Loop statements such as while - (2014-11-22)
  [4455] Working out distance between places, using OS grid references and a program in Tcl - (2015-03-11)


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Comparing loop commands in Tcl
Some other Articles
Perl functions such as chop change their input parameters
New in Java 7 - and why we are not running public Java 7 courses
Adding Expect on top of Tcl - what is it and where can I get a training course to learn about it?
Trapping errors in Tcl - the safety net that catch provides
Images of the new year in Melksham
Telling which ServerAlias your visitor used - useful during merging domains
First of the year
Initial thoughts - response to GW Rail Franchise Consultation for Wiltshire
What would an appropriate train service on the TransWilts line mean
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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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