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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
Exclamation marks and question marks on ruby method names

In ruby, you'll find some function/method names that are just a series of letters (a rather conventional sort of name for a function or a variable), and others that have a ! or ? on the end. What's the significance of these?

• A function with a ! on the end usually alters the incoming object rather than returning a new object
• A function with a ? on the end usually return a true or false value so would be used in a conditional
• A function with neither a ? nor a ! usually returns a new object.

Here's an example with chop ...

This will not alter stuff, but will return you a result object in less:
  less = stuff.chop
whereas this will alter the stuff object:
  stuff.chop!

There's a further example [here] - including sample output
(written 2010-07-28, updated 2010-07-30)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
R106 - Input and Output in Ruby
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  [2290] Opening and reading files - the ruby fundamentals - (2009-07-16)
  [2614] Neatly formatting results into a table - (2010-02-01)
  [2621] Ruby collections and strings - some new examples - (2010-02-03)
  [2974] Formatting your output - options available in Ruby - (2010-09-29)
  [3429] Searching through all the files in or below a directory - Ruby, Tcl, Perl - (2011-09-09)
  [4499] Significant work - beyond helloworld in Ruby - (2015-05-27)
  [4678] Expect with Ruby - a training example to get you started - (2016-05-18)


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