Floating point numbers aren't held EXACTLY in a computer's memory - they're held to a certain accuracy (number of significant figures or binary digits to be more accurante) after which they are truncated or rounded. And this means that at time 1.0 / 3.0 * 3.0 doesn't go full circle and come back to the value one - it comes back to 0.99999999999999 or something like that. Does this matter? Yes - sometimes it does.
The first thing to be aware of is that if you say
if (result == 1.0)
in some langauges, you may get a false result back even if result should - mathematically
- equal 1.0.
The second thing to be aware of is how you can loose precision. This came up today on an example that I was writing during the extra Lua course
that we had scheduled at the last minute.
Scenario - the value of an asset changes fractionally each day; using 4 byte floats, it's held to 7 significant decimal places and yesterday it was worth 1.634294 pounds per litle and today that's 1.634241 pounds. So that's a loss of 0.000053 pounds, right. Well - yes - it's right, but look at the accuracy of that - I've only been able to quote it to 2 significant figures, and it's showing an error of +- 2%.
The software we were developing was making a further calculation which it compared with that 0.000053, and which had a great deal more accuracy in it and - at times - 'less than' and 'greater than' tests were coming up with different results in Lua to Excel!
Did this matter? No and yes, and no again. If we were simply summing the differences between the two numbers being compared, it wasn't a problem save for the limited accuracy. If we used the "a" is greater or "b" is greater result to make a decision - such as who should be promoted - then we have clearly made to very different decisions whihc could have dramatic consequences. But if the numbers were so close to each other the results, although very different, were by definition virtually identical as to how good they were.
A fascinating subject - and a reminder that there are times that if we are agonisoing over a decision, unsure which of two courses of action are the best ... it might just be that the alternatives are vitually as good as one another and we'ld do better to make a choice - EITHER choice - and get on with handling the results of that decision. (written 2009-11-21)
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articlesU102 - Lua - Numbers and the Math library. 
If you are learning Lua, here are some more examples - (2008-07-06) 
Lua examples, Lua Courses - (2008-08-08) 
Automatically initialising Lua variables the first time - (2009-08-10) 
BODMAS - the order a computer evaluates arithmetic expressions - (2012-11-09) 
Lua - changes to how integers and floats are handled - 5.2 to 5.3 - (2015-11-02)Q110 - Object Orientation and General technical topics - Programming Algorithms 
Searching for numbers - (2005-02-04) 
Bellringing and Programming and Objects and Perl - (2005-02-25) 
How similar are two words - (2006-03-11) 
Speed Networking - a great evening and how we arranged it - (2007-04-21) 
Updating a page strictly every minute (PHP, Perl) - (2007-05-14) 
Ordnance Survey Grid Reference to Latitude / Longitude - (2007-10-14) 
Validating Credit Card Numbers - (2008-10-14) 
Nuclear Physics comes to our web site - (2008-12-17) 
Matching disparate referencing systems (MediaWiki, PHP, also Tcl) - (2009-05-19) 
Grouping rows for a summary report - MySQL and PHP - (2009-06-27) 
And and Or illustrated by locks - (2010-01-17) 
Comparing floating point numbers - a word of caution and a solution - (2010-02-01) 
Sorting people by their names - (2010-07-29) 
Lots of way of converting 3 letter month abbreviations to numbers - (2010-09-10) 
Arrays v Lists - what is the difference, why use one or the other - (2010-10-10) 
Least Common Ancestor - what is it, and a Least Common Ancestor algorithm implemented in Perl - (2010-11-11) 
Finding elements common to many lists / arrays - (2010-11-26) 
How many toilet rolls - hotel inventory and useage - (2010-12-18) 
AND and OR operators - what is the difference between logical and bitwise varieties? - (2010-12-24) 
Why would you want to use a Perl hash? - (2011-09-20) 
Finding the total, average, minimum and maximum in a program - (2012-02-22) 
Finding all the unique lines in a file, using Python or Perl - (2012-03-20) 
Learning to program - what are algorithms and design patterns? - (2014-11-22) 
Selecting RECENT and POPULAR news and trends for your web site users - (2015-01-19) 
Finding sum, minimum, maximum and average in Python (and Ruby) - (2015-01-19) 
A good example of recursion - a real use in Python - (2015-02-01) 
Testing new algorithms in PHP - (2016-02-20) 
Identifying the first and last records in a sequence - (2016-02-26) 
Some gems from an introduction to Python - (2016-10-29)
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