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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
A short form of if ... then ... else

There are so many times you want to say "if ... then ... else" to do no more than choose between the word "is" and "are", to say "child" or "children", or to say "may" or "may not" in your output. Using an if statement for that's a lot of code for a little job.

In most of the languages we teach (Perl, PHP, Python, Java, Ruby and C and C++), the ? ... : operator allows you to do a 'rapid fire' If and else ...

PHP, Perl

print (($n==1) ? "is" : "are") ;

Ruby

In Ruby, the operator is available and you can even embed it within a double quoted string ... (that's Ruby for you!)

method = miles < 3 ? "walk" : "ride"
or
print "That is a #{miles > 10 ? "LONG" : "short"} distance\n"

See Complete example source

Tcl, Tcl/Tk and Expect

Tcl is a command based language rather than an operator based one, so as you would expect the : and ? operator is not available everywhere - but you CAN use it within the expr command, or implicit expr deferred blocks - the conditions for if and while commands.

Here we are, checking under British licensing laws, whether we can sell you alcohol:

set mayyou [expr (($here > 17)?"may":"may not")]
puts "You $mayyou buy a drink"


The full source code is here. As even with Tcl, I could place the square bracketed expression for evaluation into my puts, but I've decided to keep it clear rather than concise.

Want to know more?

We provide training courses on all the languages I have mentioned - we offer scheduled public courses if you have just one or two delegates, and we can run private courses (and even do so at your own offices) if you have a larger group.
(written 2009-10-23)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
T203 - Tcl/Tk - Conditionals and Loops
  [210] Joining lists in Tcl. Indirect variables in Tcl. - (2005-02-12)
  [1401] Tcl - using [] or {} for conditions in an if (and while) - (2007-10-23)
  [1477] Decisions - small ones, or big ones? - (2007-12-18)
  [1696] Saying NOT in Perl, PHP, Python, Lua ... - (2008-07-04)
  [2261] Tcl - nice and nasty - (2009-06-29)
  [2681] Tcl - a great engineering language - (2010-03-17)
  [3189] Tcl - the danger of square brackets in a while command - (2011-03-02)
  [3397] Does a for loop evaluate its end condition once, or on every iteration? - (2011-08-18)
  [3570] Trapping errors in Tcl - the safety net that catch provides - (2012-01-06)
  [3571] Comparing loop commands in Tcl - (2012-01-06)
  [4322] Learning to Program - the conditional statement (if) - (2014-11-21)
  [4323] Learning to program - Loop statements such as while - (2014-11-22)
  [4455] Working out distance between places, using OS grid references and a program in Tcl - (2015-03-11)

R104 - Ruby - Control Structures
  [960] 1st, 2nd, 3rd revisited in Ruby - (2006-12-02)
  [962] Breaking a loop - Ruby and other languages - (2006-12-03)
  [985] Equality in Ruby - == eql? and equal? - (2006-12-14)
  [995] Ruby's case - no break - (2006-12-17)
  [1163] A better alternative to cutting and pasting code - (2007-04-26)
  [1220] for loop - how it works (Perl, PHP, Java, C, etc) - (2007-06-06)
  [1582] Ruby, C, Java and more - getting out of loops - (2008-03-19)
  [1587] Some Ruby programming examples from our course - (2008-03-21)
  [1738] Clean code, jump free (Example in Lua) - (2008-08-06)
  [1870] What to do with a huge crop of apples - (2008-11-04)
  [1887] Ruby Programming Course - Saturday and Sunday - (2008-11-16)
  [1891] Ruby to access web services - (2008-11-16)
  [1904] Ruby, Perl, Linux, MySQL - some training notes - (2008-11-23)
  [2287] Learning to program in Ruby - examples of the programming basics - (2009-07-15)
  [2619] Passing code to procedures and yield in Ruby - (2010-02-02)
  [2711] For loop - checked once, or evety time? Ruby v Perl comparison and contrast - (2010-04-07)
  [2892] Alternative loops and conditionals in Ruby and Perl - (2010-07-28)
  [2975] Why do I need brackets in Ruby ... or Perl, Python, C or Java - (2010-09-29)
  [3156] Splitting data reading code from data processing code - Ruby - (2011-02-04)
  [3158] Ruby training - some fresh examples for string handling applications - (2011-02-05)
  [3159] Returning multiple values from a function call in various languages - a comparison - (2011-02-06)
  [3200] How a for loop works Java, Perl and other languages - (2011-03-12)
  [3253] Is this number between? Does this list include? - Ruby - (2011-04-18)
  [3254] Multiple inputs, multiple out, ruby functions - (2011-04-19)
  [3422] Assigning values to variables within other statements - Ruby - (2011-09-07)
  [3619] Ruby v Perl - a comparison example - (2012-02-21)
  [3620] Finding the total, average, minimum and maximum in a program - (2012-02-22)
  [3769] Muttable v immutable and implications - Ruby - (2012-06-20)
  [4370] Conditionals, loops and methods in Ruby - a primer with simple examples - (2014-12-29)
  [4402] Finding sum, minimum, maximum and average in Python (and Ruby) - (2015-01-19)
  [4503] Separating your code for easier testing, understanding and re-use; example in Ruby - (2015-06-02)
  [4504] Where does Ruby load modules from, and how to load from current directory - (2015-06-03)
  [4674] Alternating valuses / flip-flop / toggle - example in Ruby - (2016-05-17)


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split and join in tcl and expect
Some other Articles
Quick easy and dangerous - automated logins via Tcl / Expect
Using Tcl and Expect to automate repetitive jobs
Exploring Old Railways
split and join in tcl and expect
A short form of if ... then ... else
Windows 7 and Open Source Programming
Beyond the Pale
What are Tcl lists?
Tcl - catching an error before your program crashes
Tcl - passing arrays and strings in and back out of procs
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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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