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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
Java - Memory Allocation and garbage collection

When you're running a dynamic application (and most of the languages we teach these days are dynamic), memory is allocated and released as necessary at run time, with allocation happening 'as required' and being released from time to time by a garbage collector - there is no point is collecting a few bytes of memory every time that there is some released as that would be very inefficient - rather like calling out your local council to collect your rubbish every time you finished a packet of crisps. So if you look at a graph of memory usage, you'll see a saw-toothed shape like this:

In Java, data (objects) are held in memory in different areas, and moved around between them, to make the memory management and garbage collection more efficient, and the memory areas each have their own names.

New objects are allocated memory in the Eden Space memory pool (as in created in Eden) and by the nature of most applications in which the majority of objects only survive for a short while, that's where they remain for their short lives. Here is a graph showing the size of Eden Space alone - you'll notice the same general saw toothed shape, but the curve drops virtually to zero at the base of every tooth:

At minor garbage collection time, objects which survive garbage collection are moved to the Survivor Space which, as the name implies, is used for objects that have a longer life span / expectancy. Here's a graph of survivor space - you'll see some gentle ups and downs but in general a much smoother curve!

And that minority of objects that aren't going to be going away but are 'around for the duration' become a part of the Tenure space. I wouldn't describe the graph for tenure as a curve - more like a straight line!

All four sample graphs are taken from jconsole, monitoring a Tomcat server that's ticking over with just a few test connections / pages being served.

There are also other memory pools used and shown by jconsole - there's the code cache where the code that's being run - both Tomcat itself and the classes it is running - resides, and you have permanent areas too - one "rw" (read / write) and one that is "ro" (read only). The code cache graph looks somewhere between the survivor and tenure in shape:

And the permanent areas are close to being flat files (I haven't reproduced them here!)

(written 2009-03-14, updated 2012-10-13)

Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
A901 - Replaced Page
  [1370] Apache Tomcat Performance Tuning - (2007-09-29)
  [1718] Increasing Java Virtual Machine memory for Tomcat - (2008-07-24)
  [2272] Monitoring and loading tools for testing Apache Tomcat - (2009-07-07)

A692 - Web Application Deployment - Monitoring and load testing your server
  [2080] Using ApacheBench and jconsole to test and monitor Tomcat - (2009-03-14)
  [2082] Jmeter - a first test case - (2009-03-14)
  [3015] Logging the performance of the Apache httpd web server - (2010-10-25)
  [3019] Apache httpd Server Status - monitoring your server - (2010-10-28)
  [3027] Server logs - drawing a graph of gathered data - (2010-11-03)

A506 - Web Application Deployment - Java - Installing and Deploying optional Technologies
  [2081] Connecting jconsole remotely - the principles - (2009-03-14)
  [3043] Gathering information - logging - with log4j. First steps. - (2010-11-12)

A503 - Web Application Deployment - Java - Sourcing, Installing, Initial Testing
  [1908] Java CLASSPATH explained - (2008-11-26)
  [2153] Class Loading and Variable Conversion in Java - (2009-05-02)
  [2184] Choosing the right version of Java and Tomcat - (2009-05-16)

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A lot has changed - but the memory lingers on
Why put Apache httpd in front of Apache Tomcat
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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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