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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
User and Group settings for Apache httpd web server

When you're running an Apache httpd web server, you should run it using a separate daemon user account and group set up for the purpose and not run it as either root (a horrific thing to do, as it would lead to all sorts of security holes) or nobody (another very bad idea, as the "nobody" applications can club together and become a somebody, as the Tsars discovered some 90 years ago).

Under Redhat (Fedora) you'll find both user and group numbers 48 set up as "apache" and you should use them. Under SuSE the equivalent is "www" and "wwwrun". Simply put the names or numbers into the httpd.conf file under teh user and group directive. On other versions of *nix, you may need to set up the account yourself.

Once you have set up your web server in this way, you can create your developer/deployer's account and the web area to be owned by that developer/deployer, in the same group as the web server. Then use the user permissions to control what the developer can read and write, and the group permissions to control what the web server can read and write.
(written 2008-04-22, updated 2008-04-23)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
A603 - Web Application Deployment - Further httpd Configuration
  [345] Spotting a denial of service attack - (2005-06-12)
  [466] Separating 'per instance' data from binaries and web sites - (2005-10-16)
  [526] Apache httpd - serving web documents from different directories - (2005-12-12)
  [550] 2006 - Making business a pleasure - (2006-01-01)
  [631] Apache httpd to Tomcat - jk v proxy - (2006-03-03)
  [649] Denial of Service ''attack'' - (2006-03-17)
  [662] An unhelpful error message from Apache httpd - (2006-03-30)
  [755] Using different URLs to navigate around a single script - (2006-06-11)
  [853] To list a directory under httpd on a web server, or not? - (2006-09-02)
  [934] Clustering, load balancing, mod_rewrite and mod_proxy - (2006-11-21)
  [1009] Passing GET parameters through Apache mod_rewrite - (2006-12-27)
  [1080] httpd.conf or .htaccess? - (2007-02-14)
  [1121] Sharing the load with Apache httpd and perhaps Tomcat - (2007-03-29)
  [1207] Simple but effective use of mod_rewrite (Apache httpd) - (2007-05-27)
  [1351] Compressing web pages sent out from server. Is it worth it? - (2007-09-14)
  [1355] .php or .html extension? Morally Static Pages - (2007-09-17)
  [1377] Load Balancing with Apache mod_jk (httpd/Tomcat) - (2007-10-02)
  [1381] Using a MySQL database to control mod_rewrite via PHP - (2007-10-06)
  [1551] Which modules are loaded in my Apache httpd - (2008-02-23)
  [1554] Online hotel reservations - Melksham, Wiltshire (near Bath) - (2008-02-24)
  [1564] Default file (MiMe types) for Apache httpd and Apache Tomcat - (2008-03-04)
  [1566] Strange behaviour of web directory requests without a trailing slash - (2008-03-06)
  [1636] What to do if the Home Page is missing - (2008-05-08)
  [1707] Configuring Apache httpd - (2008-07-12)
  [1762] WEB-INF (Tomcat) and .htaccess (httpd) - (2008-08-20)
  [1767] mod_proxy and mod_proxy_ajp - httpd - (2008-08-22)
  [1778] Pointing all the web pages in a directory at a database - (2008-08-30)
  [1939] mod_proxy_ajp and mod_proxy_balancer examples - (2008-12-13)
  [1954] mod_rewrite for newcomers - (2008-12-20)
  [1955] How to avoid duplicating web page maintainance - (2008-12-20)
  [1974] Moving a directory on your web site - (2009-01-03)
  [2060] Database connection Pooling, SSL, and command line deployment - httpd and Tomcat - (2009-03-01)
  [2272] Monitoring and loading tools for testing Apache Tomcat - (2009-07-07)
  [2478] How did I do THAT? - (2009-10-26)
  [2900] Redirecting a page - silent, temporary or permanent? - (2010-08-03)
  [3133] An image from a website that occasionally comes out as hyroglyphics - (2011-01-14)
  [3449] Apache Internal Dummy Connection - what is it and what should I do with it? - (2011-09-19)
  [3635] Parse error: parse error, unexpected T_STRING on brand new web site - why? - (2012-03-03)
  [3862] Forwarding a whole domain, except for a few directories - Apache http server - (2012-09-17)
  [3955] Building up from a small PHP setup to an enterprise one - (2012-12-16)
  [4001] Helping search engines with appropriate 400 error codes - (2013-02-11)
  [4307] Identifying and clearing denial of service attacks on your Apache server - (2014-09-27)

A161 - Web Application Deployment - Users and Groups
  [409] Functions and commands with dangerous names - (2005-08-11)
  [431] File permissions of Linux and Unix systems - (2005-08-31)
  [683] Supporting users on Linux and Unix - (2006-04-13)
  [1592] Setting up a new user - Linux or Unix - (2008-03-26)
  [1650] Looking for files with certain characteristics (Linux / Unix) - (2008-05-22)
  [1773] The Longest Possible Day - (2008-08-26)
  [1902] sstrwxrwxrwx - Unix and Linux file permissions - (2008-11-23)
  [1904] Ruby, Perl, Linux, MySQL - some training notes - (2008-11-23)
  [2103] Ask the Tutor - Open Source forum - (2009-03-25)
  [2117] Choosing a railway station fairly in PHP - (2009-04-04)
  [2203] Always use su with minus. And where do programs come from? - (2009-05-27)
  [2301] Mistaken identity? - (2009-07-22)
  [2491] Root is root for a reason! - (2009-11-03)
  [2639] su or su - ... what is the difference? - (2010-02-17)
  [4045] Linux Web Server - User Roles, User Accounts, and shared administration - (2013-03-16)


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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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