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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
Tcl - global, upvar and uplevel.

In Tcl, variables are "scoped" to the procedure in which they're used. That's a sensible default, since you want to be able to write main applications without the risk of interfering with variables within your procs.

A global command in a proc allows you to refer to a variable in the main code from within a proc. (No need to declare it global at the top level too)

An upvar command allows you to reference a variable in your calling code from within your proc, and is commonly used for "pass by name" requirements where you're writing a proc that must alter an incoming variable.

The uplevel command allows you to run a piece of code as if it was in the namespace of your calling code and not in your proc - and you can even specify a number of levels of code up or an absolute level number.

Suggestion. Use upvar whenever you need to call by name. Use global sparingly. And think very carefully before you ever use uplevel!

Example:

proc demo {what where} {
global counter
upvar $where hereitis
uplevel incr dc
append hereitis ", UK"
incr counter
puts "Demo run"
return "$what $hereitis"
}
#
set dc 0
set counter 0
set place Melksham
set rz [demo "eat in" place]
puts "function returns: $rz"
puts "place will have UK on the end: $place"
puts "counter is number of calls to demo: $counter"
puts "variable dc has become: $dc"


Runs as

Dorothy:~/oct07 grahamellis$ tclsh uld
Demo run
function returns: eat in Melksham, UK
place will have UK on the end: Melksham, UK
counter is number of calls to demo: 1
variable dc has become: 1
Dorothy:~/oct07 grahamellis$


(written 2007-10-24, updated 2011-03-01)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
T207 - Tcl/Tk - Procedures and Variable Scope
  [96] Variable Scope - (2004-10-22)
  [122] Passing arrays to procs in Tcl - (2004-11-18)
  [308] Call by name v call by value - (2005-05-11)
  [409] Functions and commands with dangerous names - (2005-08-11)
  [775] Do not duplicate your code - (2006-06-23)
  [1163] A better alternative to cutting and pasting code - (2007-04-26)
  [1782] Calling procs in Tcl and how it compares to Perl - (2008-09-02)
  [2466] Tcl - passing arrays and strings in and back out of procs - (2009-10-22)
  [2476] Tcl - uplevel to run code at calling level - (2009-10-24)
  [2520] Global and Enable - two misused words! - (2009-11-30)
  [2929] Passing a variable number of parameters in to a function / method - (2010-08-20)
  [3192] Tcl - Some example of HOW TO in handling data files and formats - (2011-03-04)
  [3414] Passing back multiple results in Tcl - upvar and uplevel - (2011-09-01)
  [3629] Sharing lots of values in Tcl without having lots of global declarations - (2012-02-28)
  [4398] Accessing variables across subroutine boundaries - Perl, Python, Java and Tcl - (2015-01-18)


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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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