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Linux run states, shell special commands, and directory structures

Some useful notes from the board ...
init states for a Linux or Unix systems
Run states of Unix and Linux systems:
0 - Halted
1 - Single User
2 - Multiuser
3 - Full Multiuser (inc servers)
5 - Same + X Windows
6 - transient reboot



Install order - httpd, PHP, MySQL etc
Install Order for LAMP
Linux ...
... then Apache httpd
... then MySQL
... then PHP.
PHP must be after MySQL if you want to load in the drivers from the MySQL distribution within the PHP!



Why /bin, /usr/bin, /usr/local/bin and so on
Lots of bin directories
bin directories contain (or originally contained) binary programs.
/bin - needed at boot time
/usr/bin - regular part of the operating system
/usr/local/bin - local additions to the OS
/usr/local/java/bin - Java binaries
/sbin - system admin binaries needed at boot
/usr/sbin - systenm admin binaries not needed at boot



Special Characters in Shell programming
Shell Special Characters
$ - Shell variable substitution
' - protect string from shell
" - protect string from shell (not $)
\ - protect next char from shell
` - run embedded command first
* - match any characters in file name
? - match any one character in file name
[] - match any listed character in file name
> - redirect stdout (output)
< - redirect stdin (input)
| - pipe output in to next command
space - separate parameters
c/r - command terminator
; - multiple commands on one line
& - run command in background


(written 2007-08-03, updated 2009-01-22)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
A101 - Web Application Deployment - Linux -An Introduction For Users
  [3819] Packing a tar, jar or war file - best practise - (2012-07-26)
  [3791] The Kernel, Shells and Daemons. Greek Gods in computing - (2012-07-01)
  [3256] Displaying a directory or file system tree - Linux - (2011-04-22)
  [3179] Oops - I typed ci not vi, and have lost my file ... - (2011-02-21)
  [2831] Recording (a macro) in vi - (2010-06-27)
  [2636] Linux - useful tips including history and file name completion - (2010-02-15)
  [2494] Making Linux Politically correct - (2009-11-06)
  [2479] Accidentally typed ci rather than vi? - (2009-10-27)
  [2300] What does x on a linux directory mean? - (2009-07-21)
  [2299] How much space does my directory take - Linux - (2009-07-20)
  [2203] Always use su with minus. And where do programs come from? - (2009-05-27)
  [2201] Running straight from the jar, but not from a tar - (2009-05-26)
  [1904] Ruby, Perl, Linux, MySQL - some training notes - (2008-11-23)
  [1902] sstrwxrwxrwx - Unix and Linux file permissions - (2008-11-23)
  [1897] Keeping on an even keel - (2008-11-21)
  [1893] Some Linux and Unix tips - (2008-11-18)
  [1803] FTP passive mode - a sometimes cure for upload hangs - (2008-09-20)
  [1764] Yank and Push - copy and move in vi - (2008-08-21)
  [1651] ls command - favourite options - (2008-05-23)
  [1527] Selecting file names in a shell - one word or another - (2008-02-02)
  [1438] Copy and paste / cut and paste and other vi techniques - (2007-11-20)
  [1408] Wireless hotel tips - FTP and Skype connections failing - (2007-10-26)
  [1366] awk - a powerful data extraction and manipulation tool - (2007-09-25)
  [1287] Work and play at Well House Manor - Football and Shell Shortcuts - (2007-08-02)
  [1259] Where am I and how did I get here? - (2007-07-05)
  [1068] ls -l report, Linux / Unix - types and permssions - (2007-02-06)
  [1013] Copy multiple files - confusing error message from cp - (2006-12-30)
  [1012] Moving files between Windows / DOS and Linux / Unix - (2006-12-30)
  [984] Cardinal numbers and magic numbers - (2006-12-14)
  [749] Cottage industry or production line data handling methods - (2006-06-07)
  [711] THE home directory or MY home directory - (2006-05-06)
  [710] Linux training Glasgow, Python programming course Dundee - (2006-05-05)
  [703] Copying files and preserving ownership - (2006-04-28)
  [679] More or less on the edge of the page - (2006-04-11)
  [659] Web Application Components - (2006-03-28)
  [593] Finding where the disc space has gone - (2006-02-06)
  [431] File permissions of Linux and Unix systems - (2005-08-31)
  [430] Linux commands - some basics - (2005-08-31)
  [249] An easy way out - (2005-03-17)
  [152] Aladdin, or careful what you wish. - (2004-12-15)
  [74] pushd and popd - (2004-10-05)
  [73] vi - full circle - (2004-10-04)

A162 - Web Application Deployment - Backups and File System Management
  [4481] Extracting data from backups to restore selected rows from MySQL tables - (2015-05-01)
  [4405] Backup procedures - via backup server - (2015-01-24)
  [4400] Commenting out an echo killed my bash backup script - (2015-01-19)
  [4390] Checking MySQL database backups have worked (not failed) - (2015-01-10)
  [4115] More or less back - what happened to our server the other day - (2013-06-14)
  [4063] Backups by crossover between network centres - setting up automatic scp transfers - (2013-04-13)
  [4056] An overpractical test of our backup strategy! - (2013-03-30)
  [1801] Will your backups work if you have to restore them? - (2008-09-18)
  [1765] Dialects of English and Unix - (2008-08-21)
  [1648] The tourists guide to Linux - (2008-05-20)
  [1439] Linux / Unix - layout of operating system files - (2007-11-20)
  [1023] Finding public writeable things on your linux file system - (2007-01-06)
  [754] tar, jar, war, ear, sar files - (2006-06-10)
  [735] Boys will be boys, saved by Ubuntu - (2006-05-27)
  [554] What backup is adequate? - (2006-01-04)
  [334] Symbolic links and hard links - (2005-06-02)
  [153] Linux - where to put swap space - (2004-12-16)

A164 - Web Application Deployment - Services and Regular Jobs
  [4487] Starting MySQL. ERROR! The server quit without updating PID file - how we fixed it. - (2015-05-06)
  [3792] Managing daemons from a terminal session - (2012-07-01)
  [3143] On time - (2011-01-23)
  [3011] What are .pid files? - (2010-10-23)
  [2182] What Linux run level am I in? - (2009-05-15)
  [2145] Using the internet to remotely check for power failure at home (PHP) - (2009-04-29)
  [1903] daemons - what is running on my Linux server? - (2008-11-23)
  [1733] memcached - overview, installation, example of use in PHP - (2008-08-02)
  [1731] Apache httpd, MySQL, PHP - installation procedure - (2008-08-01)
  [1700] FTP server on Fedora Linux - (2008-07-06)
  [1633] Changing a screen saver from a web page (PHP, Perl, OSX) - (2008-05-06)
  [1553] Automatic startup and shutdown of Tomcat - (2008-02-24)
  [1028] Linux / Unix - process priority and nice - (2007-01-10)
  [907] Browser -> httpd -> Tomcat -> MySQL. Restarting. - (2006-10-28)
  [544] Repeating tasks with crontab - (2005-12-27)

A191 - Web Application Deployment - Installing Linux
  [3632] What is Make? - (2012-03-02)
  [1292] DHCP automatic IP address v Static IP - (2007-08-06)
  [705] Disc Partitioning - (2006-04-30)


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