Training, Open Source Programming Languages

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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
Injection attacks - safeguard your PHP scripts

An injection attack is where information supplied within a table entry box or upload file is used for malicious purposes - for example, if a user enters his name as fred'; drop database test; etc ... and finds that the script he has contacted inserts the text entered into a database query. Possible injection attacks include:

* HTML, where an abuser fills in tags into a data entry box. Leads to poorly displayed information when the tags are echoed back to his (or other users) pages. Solution - htmlspecialchars

* Variable seeding, where an abuser adds an extra box to the HTML source and initialises one of your variables that you have failed to initialise in your code. Scripts which are easily accessible in source form are prone to this form of attack if poorly written, but only if you're running PHP4.0 or earlier, or if you've set register globals

* JavaScript, where Javascript is filled in to a box and echoed back. The problem then is that the Javascript may be seen as having been supplied by the server so can access the server without the usual security restrictions.

* SQL, where SQL is entered into a box - my example in the into paragraph shows an SQL attack example although I haven't given you the complete code. Once again, these attacks are much more likely to succeed on scripts where the source code is commonly available.

Both the Javascript and SQL attacks can be prevented by default if the "magic quotes" setting is on - which by defaut it IS on recent versions of PHP. If, however, you stripslashes an input so that you can echo back O'Brien and not have it come up as O\'Brien, then you'll need to ad slashed back in for storing in a database, and check scripts that echo back input to ensure they're not sending Javascript

* File name, where the user's input is taken as being a file name or the basis of one. If I enter my name as "../graham", for example. I you must take the user's input to form a file name, filter it carefully!

* Email header, where a subject line or recipient can be specificed that's used as extra parameters to the mail() function. Subject lines that include a new line character can be used to add a "cc" to "bcc" header unless you check it, and if your email script does not email you each time it's used, then you can be unaware that your site is being used to send out unsolicited material for years!

Although all of the coding traps that allow you to leave you site open to attack were easily present on earlier versions of PHP, it's hugely improved now. Variable seeding, Javascript and SQL attacks are turned off via default server configuration options "register globals" and "magic quotes" that you will find in the server's php.ini file.
(written 2007-02-20)

Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter for individual articles
H117 - Security in PHP
  [345] Spotting a denial of service attack - (2005-06-12)
  [426] Robust checking of data entered by users - (2005-08-27)
  [920] A lion in a cage - PHP - (2006-11-10)
  [947] What is an SQL injection attack? - (2006-11-27)
  [1052] Learning to write secure, maintainable PHP - (2007-01-25)
  [1323] Easy handling of errors in PHP - (2007-08-27)
  [1387] Error logging to file not browser in PHP - (2007-10-11)
  [1396] Using PHP to upload images / Store on MySQL database - security questions - (2007-10-19)
  [1482] A story about benchmarking PHP - (2007-12-23)
  [1542] Are nasty programs looking for security holes on your server? - (2008-02-17)
  [1679] PHP - Sanitised application principles for security and useability - (2008-06-16)
  [1694] Defensive coding techniques in PHP? - (2008-07-02)
  [1747] Who is watching you? - (2008-08-10)
  [1779] Injection Attacks - avoiding them in your PHP - (2008-08-31)
  [2025] Injection Attack if register_globals in on - PHP - (2009-02-04)
  [2628] An example of an injection attack using Javascript - (2010-02-08)
  [2688] Security considerations in programming - what do we teach? - (2010-03-22)
  [2939] Protecting your images from use out of context - (2010-08-29)
  [3210] Catchable fatal error in PHP ... How to catch, and alternative solutions such as JSON - (2011-03-22)
  [3698] How to stop forms on other sites submitting to your scripts - (2012-04-15)
  [3747] An easy way to comply with the new cookie law if your site is well designed - (2012-06-02)
  [3813] Injection Attacks - PHP, SQL, HTML, Javascript - and how to neutralise them - (2012-07-22)
  [4642] A small teaching program - demonstration of principles only - (2016-02-08)

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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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