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List out all programs on the current $PATH
Hashes example from a Well House Consultants training course
More on Hashes [link]

This example is described in the following article(s):
   • Finding operating system settings in Perl - [link]

Source code: pathit Module: P211
=head1 Listing all files on executable path

This program lists all the executable files on the
current operating system PATH in alphabetic order,
annotated with a note of where each of them is

It also checks for programs which are duplicated on
the path and lists out all such programs at the end.

Shell built-ins and alias are not listed.


$sep = ($^O =~ /^MS/) ? ";" : ":"; # Windows uses ; separator
@pels = split(/$sep/,$ENV{PATH});

foreach $dir (@pels) {
        opendir(DH,$dir) or next; # ignore directories that do not exist
        foreach $item(readdir DH) {
                $full = "$dir/$item";
                next if (-d $full); # subdirectories
                next if (! -x _); # files not executable
                if ($found{$item}) { # duplicated in an earlier directory
                        push @crisis,$item;
                $found{$item} .= " $dir";

print "You may run the following programs\n";
for $prog (sort keys %found) { # for and foreach are synonymns ;-)
        print "$prog from $found{$prog}\n";

if (@crisis) {
        print "PROBLEMS with @crisis\n";


sample output:

Dorothy:csr1 grahamellis$ perl pathit
You may run the following programs
AppleFileServer from /usr/sbin
BootCacheControl from /usr/sbin
DirectoryService from /usr/sbin
KernelEventAgent from /usr/sbin
SystemStarter from /sbin
UserEventAgent from /usr/sbin
X from /usr/X11/bin
Xquartz from /usr/X11/bin
[ from /bin
a2p from /usr/bin
ab from /usr/sbin
ac from /usr/sbin
accept from /usr/sbin
accton from /usr/sbin
addftinfo from /usr/bin
afconvert from /usr/bin
afinfo from /usr/bin
afmtodit from /usr/bin
afplay from /usr/bin
alias from /usr/bin
amavisd from /usr/bin
amavisd-agent from /usr/bin
amavisd-nanny from /usr/bin
amavisd-release from /usr/bin
ant from /usr/bin
apachectl from /usr/sbin
appleping from /usr/bin
applesingle from /usr/bin
appletalk from /usr/sbin
appletviewer from /usr/bin
apply from /usr/bin
appres from /usr/X11/bin
apr-1-config from /usr/bin
apropos from /usr/bin
apt from /usr/bin
apu-1-config from /usr/bin
apxs from /usr/sbin
arch from /usr/bin
arp from /usr/sbin
asr from /usr/sbin
at from /usr/bin
at_cho_prn from /usr/bin
atlookup from /usr/bin
atobm from /usr/X11/bin
atprint from /usr/bin
atq from /usr/bin
atrm from /usr/bin
atstatus from /usr/bin
atsutil from /usr/bin
autobind from /usr/sbin
autodiskmount from /sbin
automator from /usr/bin
automount from /usr/sbin
auval from /usr/bin
auvaltool from /usr/bin
awk from /usr/bin
b2m from /usr/bin
banner from /usr/bin
basename from /usr/bin
bash from /bin
bashbug from /usr/bin
batch from /usr/bin
bc from /usr/bin
bdftopcf from /usr/X11/bin
bdftruncate from /usr/X11/bin
bg from /usr/bin
biff from /usr/bin
binhex from /usr/bin
bitesize.d from /usr/bin
bitmap from /usr/X11/bin
bless from /usr/sbin
blued from /usr/sbin
bmtoa from /usr/X11/bin
bootparamd from /usr/sbin
bpwhoami from /usr/sbin
bspatch from /usr/bin
bunzip2 from /usr/bin
bzcat from /usr/bin
bzcmp from /usr/bin
bzdiff from /usr/bin
bzegrep from /usr/bin
bzfgrep from /usr/bin
bzgrep from /usr/bin
bzip2 from /usr/bin
bzip2recover from /usr/bin
bzless from /usr/bin
bzmore from /usr/bin
c++filt from /usr/bin
c2ph from /usr/bin
c_rehash from /usr/bin
cac_addid.deprecated from /usr/sbin
cac_anchors.deprecated from /usr/sbin
cac_cron.deprecated from /usr/sbin
cac_setup.deprecated from /usr/sbin
cal from /usr/bin
calendar from /usr/bin
cancel from /usr/bin
cap from /usr/bin
cap_mkdb from /usr/bin
capify from /usr/bin
captoinfo from /usr/bin
cat from /bin
ccmakedep from /usr/X11/bin
cd from /usr/bin
certtool from /usr/bin
chat from /usr/sbin
checkgid from /usr/sbin
checknr from /usr/bin
chflags from /usr/bin
chfn from /usr/bin
chgrp from /usr/bin
chmod from /bin
chown from /usr/sbin
chpass from /usr/bin
chroot from /usr/sbin
chsh from /usr/bin
cksum from /usr/bin
cleanlinks from /usr/X11/bin
clear from /usr/bin
clri from /sbin
cmp from /usr/bin
codesign from /usr/bin
codesign_allocate from /usr/bin
col from /usr/bin
colcrt from /usr/bin
colldef from /usr/bin
colrm from /usr/bin
column from /usr/bin
comm from /usr/bin
command from /usr/bin
compile_et from /usr/bin
compress from /usr/bin
config_data from /usr/bin
configd from /usr/sbin
coreaudiod from /usr/sbin
cp from /bin
cpan from /usr/bin
cpio from /usr/bin
cpuwalk.d from /usr/bin
crc32 from /usr/bin
creatbyproc.d from /usr/bin
createhomedir from /usr/sbin
crlrefresh from /usr/bin
cron from /usr/sbin
crontab from /usr/bin
cscope from /usr/bin
csh from /bin
csplit from /usr/bin
csreq from /usr/bin
cu from /usr/bin
cups-calibrate from /usr/bin
cups-config from /usr/bin
cups-genppd.5.1 from /usr/sbin
cups-genppdconfig.5.1 from /usr/sbin
cups-genppdupdate.5.1 from /usr/sbin
cupsaddsmb from /usr/sbin
cupsctl from /usr/sbin
cupsd from /usr/sbin
cupsdisable from /usr/sbin
cupsenable from /usr/sbin
cupsfilter from /usr/sbin
cupstestdsc from /usr/bin
cupstestppd from /usr/bin
curl from /usr/bin
curl-config from /usr/bin
cut from /usr/bin
cxpm from /usr/X11/bin
daemondo from /opt/local/bin
dappprof from /usr/bin
dapptrace from /usr/bin
date from /bin
dbiprof from /usr/bin
dbiproxy from /usr/bin
dbmmanage from /usr/sbin
dc from /usr/bin
dd from /bin
defaults from /usr/bin
dev_mkdb from /usr/sbin
df from /bin
diff from /usr/bin
diff3 from /usr/bin
diffpp from /usr/bin
diffstat from /usr/bin
dig from /usr/bin
dirname from /usr/bin
dirt from /usr/bin
diskarbitrationd from /usr/sbin
diskhits from /usr/bin
disklabel from /sbin
disktool from /usr/sbin
diskutil from /usr/sbin
dispqlen.d from /usr/bin
distnoted from /usr/sbin
ditto from /usr/bin
dmesg from /sbin
dns-sd from /usr/bin
dnsextd from /usr/sbin
dnssec-keygen from /usr/sbin
dnssec-signzone from /usr/sbin
domainname from /bin
dot_clean from /usr/sbin
dprofpp from /usr/bin
drutil from /usr/bin
dscacheutil from /usr/bin
dscl from /usr/bin
dsconfigad from /usr/sbin
dsconfigldap from /usr/sbin
dseditgroup from /usr/sbin
dsenableroot from /usr/sbin
dserr from /usr/bin
dsexport from /usr/bin
dsimport from /usr/bin
dsmemberutil from /usr/bin
dsperfmonitor from /usr/bin
dtrace from /usr/sbin
dtruss from /usr/bin
du from /usr/bin
dump from /sbin
dumpfs from /sbin
dumpkeymap from /usr/X11/bin
dynamic_pager from /sbin
easy_install from /usr/bin
easy_install-2.5 from /usr/bin
ebrowse from /usr/bin
echo from /bin
ed from /bin
editres from /usr/X11/bin
edquota from /usr/sbin
efax from /usr/bin
efix from /usr/bin
egrep from /usr/bin
emacs from /usr/bin
emacs-21.2.1 from /usr/bin
emacs-ppc from /usr/bin
emacs-undumped from /usr/bin
emacsclient from /usr/bin
enc2xs from /usr/bin
encode_keychange from /usr/bin
enscript from /usr/bin
env from /usr/bin
eqn from /usr/bin
eqn2graph from /usr/bin
erb from /usr/bin
errinfo from /usr/bin
escputil from /usr/bin
etags from /usr/bin
eventlogadm from /usr/bin
ex from /usr/bin
execsnoop from /usr/bin
expand from /usr/bin
expect from /usr/bin
expr from /bin
extcheck from /usr/bin
false from /usr/bin
fax from /usr/bin
fc from /usr/bin
fc-cache from /usr/X11/bin
fc-cat from /usr/X11/bin
fc-list from /usr/X11/bin
fc-match from /usr/X11/bin
fddist from /usr/bin
fdisk from /usr/sbin
ferret-browser from /usr/bin
fetchmail from /usr/bin
fetchmailconf from /usr/bin
fg from /usr/bin
fgrep from /usr/bin
fibreconfig from /sbin
file from /usr/bin
filebyproc.d from /usr/bin
find from /usr/bin
find2perl from /usr/bin
findsmb from /usr/bin
finger from /usr/bin
fixproc from /usr/bin
fmt from /usr/bin
fold from /usr/bin
fontname.sh from /usr/X11/bin
fontprop.sh from /usr/X11/bin
fonttosfnt from /usr/X11/bin
formail from /usr/bin
freetype-config from /usr/X11/bin
from from /usr/bin
fs_usage from /usr/bin
fsaclctl from /usr/sbin
fsck from /sbin
fsck_hfs from /sbin
fsck_msdos from /sbin
fslsfonts from /usr/X11/bin
fstobdf from /usr/X11/bin
fstyp from /sbin
fstyp_hfs from /sbin
fstyp_msdos from /sbin
fstyp_ntfs from /sbin
fstyp_udf from /sbin
fstyp_ufs from /sbin
ftp from /usr/bin
funzip from /usr/bin
fuser from /usr/bin
fwkpfv from /usr/bin
gccmakedep from /usr/X11/bin
gdiffmk from /usr/bin
gem from /usr/bin
gem_mirror from /usr/bin
gemlock from /usr/bin
gemri from /usr/bin
gemwhich from /usr/bin
gen_bridge_metadata from /usr/bin
gencat from /usr/bin
genstrings from /usr/bin
getconf from /usr/bin
getopt from /usr/bin
getopts from /usr/bin
gluedialect from /usr/bin
gluedoc from /usr/bin
glueedit from /usr/bin
gluemac from /usr/bin
gluescriptadds from /usr/bin
glxgears from /usr/X11/bin
glxinfo from /usr/X11/bin
gnuattach from /usr/bin
gnuclient from /usr/bin
gnudoit from /usr/bin
gnuserv from /usr/bin
gnutar from /usr/bin
gpgen from /usr/bin
gpt from /usr/sbin
grap2graph from /usr/bin
grep from /usr/bin
grep-changelog from /usr/bin
grn from /usr/bin
grodvi from /usr/bin
groff from /usr/bin
groffer from /usr/bin
grog from /usr/bin
grolbp from /usr/bin
grolj4 from /usr/bin
grops from /usr/bin
grotty from /usr/bin
groups from /usr/bin
gssd from /usr/sbin
gunzip from /usr/bin
gzcat from /usr/bin
gzexe from /usr/bin
gzip from /usr/bin
h2ph from /usr/bin
h2xs from /usr/bin
halt from /sbin
hash from /usr/bin
hdid from /usr/bin
hdik from /usr/sbin
hdiutil from /usr/bin
head from /usr/bin
hexdump from /usr/bin
host from /usr/bin
hostinfo from /usr/bin
hostname from /bin
hotspot.d from /usr/bin
hpftodit from /usr/bin
htcacheclean from /usr/sbin
htdbm from /usr/sbin
htdigest from /usr/sbin
htpasswd from /usr/sbin
httpd from /usr/sbin
httpdstat.d from /usr/bin
httxt2dbm from /usr/sbin
iceauth from /usr/X11/bin
ico from /usr/X11/bin
iconv from /usr/bin
id from /usr/bin
idle from /usr/local/bin
idle2.5 from /usr/local/bin
idlj from /usr/bin
ifconfig from /sbin
imake from /usr/X11/bin
indxbib from /usr/bin
info from /usr/bin
infocmp from /usr/bin
infokey from /usr/bin
infotocap from /usr/bin
install from /usr/bin
install-info from /usr/bin
installer from /usr/sbin
instmodsh from /usr/bin
iodbc-config from /usr/bin
iodbctest from /usr/bin
iodbctestw from /usr/bin
iofile.d from /usr/bin
iofileb.d from /usr/bin
iopattern from /usr/bin
iopending from /usr/bin
ioreg from /usr/sbin
iosnoop from /usr/bin
iostat from /usr/sbin
iotop from /usr/bin
ip6 from /usr/sbin
ip6config from /usr/sbin
ip6fw from /sbin
ipconfig from /usr/sbin
ipcount from /usr/bin
ipcrm from /usr/bin
ipcs from /usr/bin
ipfw from /sbin
ipmitool from /usr/bin
iptab from /usr/bin
irb from /usr/bin
isc-config.sh from /usr/bin
jar from /usr/bin
jarsigner from /usr/bin
java from /usr/bin
javac from /usr/bin
javadoc from /usr/bin
javah from /usr/bin
javap from /usr/bin
javaws from /usr/bin
jconsole from /usr/bin
jdb from /usr/bin
jinfo from /usr/bin
jmap from /usr/bin
jobs from /usr/bin
join from /usr/bin
jot from /usr/bin
jps from /usr/bin
jsadebugd from /usr/bin
jstack from /usr/bin
jstat from /usr/bin
jstatd from /usr/bin
kadmin from /usr/sbin
kadmin.local from /usr/sbin
kadmin_util from /usr/sbin
kadmind from /usr/sbin
kdb5_ldap_util from /usr/sbin
kdb5_util from /usr/sbin
kdcmond from /usr/sbin
kdcsetup from /usr/sbin
kdestroy from /usr/bin
kerberosautoconfig from /sbin
kextcache from /usr/sbin
kextfind from /usr/sbin
kextlibs from /usr/sbin
kextload from /sbin
kextstat from /usr/sbin
kextunload from /sbin
keytool from /usr/bin
kill from /bin
kill.d from /usr/bin
killall from /usr/bin
kinit from /usr/bin
klist from /usr/bin
kpasswd from /usr/bin
kprop from /usr/sbin
kpropd from /usr/sbin
krb5-config from /usr/bin
krb5kdc from /usr/sbin
krbservicesetup from /usr/sbin
ksh from /bin
kswitch from /usr/bin
ktutil from /usr/sbin
kvno from /usr/bin
lam from /usr/bin
languagesetup from /usr/sbin
last from /usr/bin
lastcomm from /usr/bin
lastwords from /usr/bin
latency from /usr/bin
launchctl from /bin
launchd from /sbin
ldapadd from /usr/bin
ldapcompare from /usr/bin
ldapdelete from /usr/bin
ldapmodify from /usr/bin
ldapmodrdn from /usr/bin
ldappasswd from /usr/bin
ldapsearch from /usr/bin
ldapwhoami from /usr/bin
leave from /usr/bin
less from /usr/bin
lessecho from /usr/bin
lesskey from /usr/bin
libnetcfg from /usr/bin
libpng-config from /usr/X11/bin
libpng12-config from /usr/X11/bin
link from /bin
lipo from /usr/bin
listres from /usr/X11/bin
lkbib from /usr/bin
ln from /bin
lndir from /usr/X11/bin
loads.d from /usr/bin
locale from /usr/bin
localedef from /usr/bin
locate from /usr/bin
lockfile from /usr/bin
logger from /usr/bin
login from /usr/bin
logname from /usr/bin
logresolve from /usr/sbin
look from /usr/bin
lookbib from /usr/bin
lp from /usr/bin
lpadmin from /usr/sbin
lpc from /usr/sbin
lpinfo from /usr/sbin
lpmove from /usr/sbin
lpoptions from /usr/bin
lppasswd from /usr/bin
lpq from /usr/bin
lpr from /usr/bin
lprm from /usr/bin
lpstat from /usr/bin
ls from /bin
lsbom from /usr/bin
lsm from /usr/bin
lsof from /usr/sbin
lsvfs from /usr/bin
luit from /usr/X11/bin
lwp-download from /usr/bin
lwp-mirror from /usr/bin
lwp-request from /usr/bin
lwp-rget from /usr/bin
lwresd from /usr/sbin
mDNS from /usr/bin
mDNSResponder from /usr/sbin
mDNSResponderHelper from /usr/sbin
macbinary from /usr/bin
macerror from /usr/bin
machine from /usr/bin
mail from /usr/bin
mailq from /usr/bin
mailstat from /usr/bin
mailx from /usr/bin
makedbm from /usr/sbin
makedepend from /usr/X11/bin
makeg from /usr/X11/bin
makeinfo from /usr/bin
makestrs from /usr/X11/bin
man from /usr/bin
manpath from /usr/bin
mcxquery from /usr/bin
md from /usr/bin
md5 from /sbin
mdfind from /usr/bin
mdimport from /usr/bin
mdls from /usr/bin
mdutil from /usr/bin
megaraid from /usr/sbin
mergelib from /usr/X11/bin
mesg from /usr/bin
mib2c from /usr/bin
mib2c-update from /usr/bin
mkafmmap from /usr/bin
mkbom from /usr/bin
mkdir from /bin
mkdirhier from /usr/X11/bin
mkextunpack from /usr/sbin
mkfifo from /usr/bin
mkfile from /usr/sbin
mkfontdir from /usr/X11/bin
mkfontscale from /usr/X11/bin
mkhtmlindex from /usr/X11/bin
mklocale from /usr/bin
mknod from /sbin
mktemp from /usr/bin
mmroff from /usr/bin
mnthome from /usr/bin
mongrel_rails from /usr/bin
more from /usr/bin
mount from /sbin
mount_afp from /sbin
mount_cd9660 from /sbin
mount_cddafs from /sbin
mount_devfs from /sbin
mount_fdesc from /sbin
mount_ftp from /sbin
mount_hfs from /sbin
mount_msdos from /sbin
mount_nfs from /sbin
mount_ntfs from /sbin
mount_smbfs from /sbin
mount_udf from /sbin
mount_webdav from /sbin
mp2bug from /usr/bin
mpiexec from /usr/bin
mpirun from /usr/bin
msgs from /usr/bin
mtree from /usr/sbin
mv from /bin
mvn from /usr/bin
named from /usr/sbin
named-checkconf from /usr/sbin
named-checkzone from /usr/sbin
named-compilezone from /usr/sbin
nano from /usr/bin
natd from /usr/sbin
native2ascii from /usr/bin
nbdst from /usr/bin
nc from /usr/bin
ndp from /usr/sbin
neqn from /usr/bin
net from /usr/bin
net-snmp-config from /usr/bin
netstat from /usr/sbin
networksetup from /usr/sbin
newaliases from /usr/bin
newfs from /sbin
newfs_hfs from /sbin
newfs_msdos from /sbin
newfs_udf from /sbin
newgrp from /usr/bin
newproc.d from /usr/bin
newsyslog from /usr/sbin
nfsd from /sbin
nfsiod from /sbin
nfsstat from /usr/bin
nice from /usr/bin
nl from /usr/bin
nmbd from /usr/sbin
nmblookup from /usr/bin
nohup from /usr/bin
nologin from /sbin
notifyd from /usr/sbin
notifyutil from /usr/bin
nroff from /usr/bin
nslookup from /usr/bin
nsupdate from /usr/bin
ntlm_auth from /usr/bin
ntp-keygen from /usr/bin
ntpd from /usr/sbin
ntpdate from /usr/sbin
ntpdc from /usr/sbin
ntpq from /usr/bin
ntptrace from /usr/sbin
nvram from /usr/sbin
oclock from /usr/X11/bin
ocs from /usr/bin
ocspd from /usr/sbin
od from /usr/bin
ompi_info from /usr/bin
open from /usr/bin
opensnoop from /usr/bin
openssl from /usr/bin
openssl_fips_fingerprint from /usr/bin
orbd from /usr/bin
orted from /usr/bin
orterun from /usr/bin
osacompile from /usr/bin
osadecompile from /usr/bin
osalang from /usr/bin
osascript from /usr/bin
over from /usr/bin
pack200 from /usr/bin
pagesize from /usr/bin
passwd from /usr/bin
paste from /usr/bin
patch from /usr/bin
pathchk from /usr/bin
pathopens.d from /usr/bin
pax from /bin
pbcopy from /usr/bin
pboard from /usr/sbin
pbpaste from /usr/bin
pcast from /usr/bin
pcastaction from /usr/bin
pcastctl from /usr/sbin
pcpmac from /usr/local/bin
pcscd from /usr/sbin
pcsctest from /usr/bin
pcsctool from /usr/bin
pdbedit from /usr/bin
pdfroff from /usr/bin
pdisk from /usr/sbin
periodic from /usr/sbin
perl from /usr/bin
perl5.8.8 from /usr/bin
perlbug from /usr/bin
perlcc from /usr/bin
perldoc from /usr/bin
perlivp from /usr/bin
pfbtops from /usr/bin
pgetfinfo from /usr/local/bin
php from /usr/bin
php-config from /usr/bin
phpize from /usr/bin
pic from /usr/bin
pic2graph from /usr/bin
pico from /usr/bin
piconv from /usr/bin
pictd from /usr/sbin
pidpersec.d from /usr/bin
ping from /sbin
ping6 from /sbin
pkgutil from /usr/sbin
pl from /usr/bin
pl2pm from /usr/bin
plainrsa-gen from /usr/sbin
plockstat from /usr/bin
plutil from /usr/bin
pmap_dump from /usr/sbin
pmap_set from /usr/sbin
pmset from /usr/bin
pmvmac from /usr/local/bin
pod2html from /usr/bin
pod2latex from /usr/bin
pod2man from /usr/bin
pod2readme from /usr/bin
pod2text from /usr/bin
pod2usage from /usr/bin
podcast from /usr/bin
podchecker from /usr/bin
podselect from /usr/bin
policytool from /usr/bin
port from /opt/local/bin
portf from /opt/local/bin
portindex from /opt/local/bin
portmap from /usr/sbin
portmirror from /opt/local/bin
post-grohtml from /usr/bin
postalias from /usr/sbin
postcat from /usr/sbin
postconf from /usr/sbin
postdrop from /usr/sbin
postfix from /usr/sbin
postkick from /usr/sbin
postlock from /usr/sbin
postlog from /usr/sbin
postmap from /usr/sbin
postqueue from /usr/sbin
postsuper from /usr/sbin
pppd from /usr/sbin
pr from /usr/bin
pre-grohtml from /usr/bin
priclass.d from /usr/bin
pridist.d from /usr/bin
printenv from /usr/bin
printf from /usr/bin
procmail from /usr/bin
procsystime from /usr/bin
profiles from /usr/bin
prove from /usr/bin
ps from /bin
psed from /usr/bin
psetfinfo from /usr/local/bin
pstopdf from /usr/bin
pstruct from /usr/bin
psync from /usr/local/bin
ptar from /usr/bin
ptardiff from /usr/bin
pubsub from /usr/bin
pwd from /bin
pwd_mkdb from /usr/sbin
pwpolicy from /usr/bin
pydoc from /usr/bin /usr/local/bin
pydoc2.5 from /usr/bin /usr/local/bin
python from /usr/bin /usr/local/bin
python-config from /usr/bin /usr/local/bin
python2.5 from /usr/bin /usr/local/bin
python2.5-config from /usr/bin
pythonw from /usr/bin /usr/local/bin
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PROBLEMS with pydoc pydoc2.5 python python-config python2.5
pythonw pythonw2.5 smtpd.py smtpd2.5.py
Dorothy:csr1 grahamellis$

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