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For 2023 (and 2024 ...) - we are now fully retired from IT training.
We have made many, many friends over 25 years of teaching about Python, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, Java, C and C++ - and MySQL, Linux and Solaris/SunOS too. Our training notes are now very much out of date, but due to upward compatability most of our examples remain operational and even relevant ad you are welcome to make us if them "as seen" and at your own risk.

Lisa and I (Graham) now live in what was our training centre in Melksham - happy to meet with former delegates here - but do check ahead before coming round. We are far from inactive - rather, enjoying the times that we are retired but still healthy enough in mind and body to be active!

I am also active in many other area and still look after a lot of web sites - you can find an index ((here))
Full PHP application / 4 layer model - start here
Designing PHP-Based Solutions: Best Practice example from a Well House Consultants training course
More on Designing PHP-Based Solutions: Best Practice [link]

This example is described in the following article(s):
   • Larger applications in PHP - [link]
   • Application design in PHP - multiple step processes - [link]
   • Improving the structure of your early PHP programs - [link]

If you're searching for a page where you can try this code, select here

This example references the following resources:

Source code: 4lm_top.php Module: H115

/* If you're writing a full application (perhaps a number
of them!) in PHP, you'll want it to be easy to write, easy
to maintain, easy to modify, and robust and consistend for
the user.  Using the "4 layer model" will help you achieve
these aims - you'll write each piece of logic only once,
keep it encapsulated in simple functions that you can easily
test and amend, and share between applications.

The four layers are:
1. The Web helper functions
2. The business logic
3. The template (look at feel) of the page(s)
4. The top layer - this file - that pulls it all together

Our PHP programming course (http://www.wellho.net/course/ph.html)
covers this 4 layer model and gives you an opportunity to try
it out - tailoring our shell to provide a simple but complete
application.  This file - like all other source on our courses -
is available for free download on the Internet and you are
welcome to make use of it if you wish. However, to make the
best of it we stongly advise to come along to the training;
there is a limit to just how much of a manual we can write in
here in order to tell you how it all fits together! */


# Globals!

$includepath "." ;
# for demo, include files in current dir

# $includepath = "$_SERVER[DOCUMENT_ROOT]/../demoprivate";
# for a practical installation - use something like

$sessname "rupert";
# unique identifier to keep session apps apart


# Load in the web helpers and business logic
include ("$includepath/4lm_webhelpers.inc");
include (

// Shell for general purpose session based application


// Set up for a new session if needed

if (! $_SESSION[current]) {
$_SESSION[current] = 0;

// Provide a reset capability for use during testing
if ($_REQUEST[reset]) {
$_SESSION = array();
$_SESSION[current] = 0;

######################### Handler responses from previous form

$error 0# Global flag for error handling in validation functions
$alert = array(); # Array of alerts for next form
$fill = array(); # Array of elements to fill in to template

switch ($_SESSION[current]) {

0// Finish up from initialisation
$_SESSION[current] = 1;

1// Finish up from first form
        // (In sample app - ask for name and email)

2// Finish up from second form
        // (In sample app - ask for phone number and postcode)

"Oh dear - bust!";

/* At this point, call up any general business logic
that should be run between reading in the previous form
and providing the next form */

$fill[current] = $_SESSION[current];
$fill[phases] = 3;
$fill[copyright] = "Well House Consultants, ".date("Y");

######################### Prepare for next form

switch ($_SESSION[current]) {

1// prepare for phase 1 (name and email in sample)

2// prepare for phase 2 (phone and postal)

3// Confirm data, "Thank You" page and store to database
session_destroy(); // Avoid echo being re-submitted

"Oh dear - failed!";
######################### Send response

$fill[errmsg] = $error ?
"<b>Error - please correct as indicated</b><br />" :
$html filltemplate("$includepath/4lm_template.htp");


Learn about this subject

Books covering this topic
Yes. We have over 700 books in our library. Books covering PHP are listed here and when you've selected a relevant book we'll link you on to Amazon to order.

Other Examples
This example comes from our "Designing PHP-Based Solutions: Best Practice" training module. You'll find a description of the topic and some other closely related examples on the "Designing PHP-Based Solutions: Best Practice" module index page.

Full description of the source code
You can learn more about this example on the training courses listed on this page, on which you'll be given a full set of training notes.

Many other training modules are available for download (for limited use) from our download centre under an Open Training Notes License.

Other resources
• Our Solutions centre provides a number of longer technical articles.
• Our Opentalk forum archive provides a question and answer centre.
The Horse's mouth provides a daily tip or thought.
• Further resources are available via the resources centre.
• All of these resources can be searched through through our search engine
• And there's a global index here.

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This web site is written and maintained by Well House Consultants.

Purpose of this website
This is a sample program, class demonstration or answer from a training course. It's main purpose is to provide an after-course service to customers who have attended our public private or on site courses, but the examples are made generally available under conditions described below.

Conditions of use
Past attendees on our training courses are welcome to use individual examples in the course of their programming, but must check the examples they use to ensure that they are suitable for their job. Remember that some of our examples show you how not to do things - check in your notes. Well House Consultants take no responsibility for the suitability of these example programs to customer's needs.

This program is copyright Well House Consultants Ltd. You are forbidden from using it for running your own training courses without our prior written permission. See our page on courseware provision for more details.

Any of our images within this code may NOT be reused on a public URL without our prior permission. For Bona Fide personal use, we will often grant you permission provided that you provide a link back. Commercial use on a website will incur a license fee for each image used - details on request.

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