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References - description and sample code
Further C++ Object Oriented features example from a Well House Consultants training course
More on Further C++ Object Oriented features [link]

This example is described in the following article(s):
   • What are C++ references? Why use them? - [link]

Source code: tinyref.cpp Module: C234
using namespace std;

/* In C++, a reference is an alternative name for a variable, whereas a pointer
is a variable that holds the address of another. Pointers are declared with an
* (there are none in this example), but references are declared with an &.

Once a variable is assigned to a reference as that reference is declared, the
two names are tied together until the reference goes our of scope - further
assignments to the reference are actually overwriting the original variable. */

#include <iostream>

int main () {

        int gerald;
        cin >> gerald; /* type in "33" */

        int flossie = 21;

        // jones is an alternative name
        // locked onto gerald (in this example) until out of scope

        int & jones = gerald;
        cout << "Gerald is " << jones << "\n"; /* reports 33 */

        gerald = 90;
        cout << "Gerald is " << jones << "\n"; /* reports 90 */

        jones = 50;
        cout << "Gerald is " << gerald << "\n"; /* reports 50 */

        // new scope (back in the parent!)

        int & jones = flossie;
        cout << "flossie is " << flossie << "\n"; /* reports 21 */
        cout << "gerald is " << gerald << "\n"; /* reports 50 */
        cout << "jones is " << jones << "\n"; /* reports 21 */



Sample output

wizzard:c++ graham$ g++ -o tinyref tinyref.cpp
wizzard:c++ graham$ ./tinyref
Gerald is 33
Gerald is 90
Gerald is 50
flossie is 21
gerald is 50
jones is 21
wizzard:c++ graham$


Learn about this subject
This module and example are covered on the following public courses:
 * Learning to program in C and C++
 * C++ for C Programmers
 * C and C++ Programming
 * Learning to program in C and C++
 * C and C++ Programming
Also available on on site courses for larger groups

Books covering this topic
Yes. We have over 700 books in our library. Books covering C and C++ are listed here and when you've selected a relevant book we'll link you on to Amazon to order.

Other Examples
This example comes from our "Further C++ Object Oriented features" training module. You'll find a description of the topic and some other closely related examples on the "Further C++ Object Oriented features" module index page.

Full description of the source code
You can learn more about this example on the training courses listed on this page, on which you'll be given a full set of training notes.

Many other training modules are available for download (for limited use) from our download centre under an Open Training Notes License.

Other resources
• Our Solutions centre provides a number of longer technical articles.
• Our Opentalk forum archive provides a question and answer centre.
The Horse's mouth provides a daily tip or thought.
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• All of these resources can be searched through through our search engine
• And there's a global index here.

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This is a sample program, class demonstration or answer from a training course. It's main purpose is to provide an after-course service to customers who have attended our public private or on site courses, but the examples are made generally available under conditions described below.

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