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Python module Y116
Applying OO design techniques and best practise
Exercises, examples and other material relating to training module Y116. This topic is presented on public courses Learning to program in Python, Python Programming, Intermediate Python

By this point on your course, you will have learned about the principles of OO, and Object design, and also the features of the Python OO scripting language. This module pulls the two threads together in order to show you the practical application of the theory.
Related technical and longer articles
What makes a good variable name?

Articles and tips on this subjectupdated
4718Defining an object that is a modified standard type in Python
If you want an object that behaves like a regular standard object but with the odd exception, you can define your own class which inherits from the system type. For example, we have redefined a dict as a specialDict in an example [here] where we've overridden just the __str__ method so that when we ...
4359How to avoid too many recalculations within an object
Object Orientation is a wonderful way of segmenting your code - hiding algorithms within objects (encapsulating) so that the user of your code need now realise about / understand the algorithms. But this can mean that the user, unknowingly, runs potentially slow and complex code many times over when ...
4118We not only teach PHP and Python - we teach good PHP and Python Practice!
This week, I'm running a private PHP course in North London, and a private Python course in Bristol ... and it's confirmed and re-confirmed the need for programming standards to be included from the beginning just as much as the mechanisms of the language. I'm not only teaching people how to write ...
4028Really Simple Class and Inheritance example in Python
It's so tempting when writing a simple training example to get excited and add lots of features - so that you then end up with an example that's anything but a simple training example! Here's an example - just about my shortest and simplest ever - that shows a base class, a subclass, inheritance, polymorphism, ...
3887Inheritance, Composition and Associated objects - when to use which - Python example
• Inheritance is where one object is based on another. • Composition is where one object contains another. Question: Which should I use? Answer: Probably BOTH! On yesterday's Python course, the question came up, and I wrote an illustrative answer - source code [here]. The scenario we ...
2604Tips for writing a test program (Ruby / Python / Java)
Where does my test code go? If you've written a class - a series of methods to be used within another application - how do you test it? How about writing a test program within the same file which runs as the main program if you run your class on its own from the command line, but is ignored if you ...
2523Plan your application before you start
Planning your project / application ahead of time can save you so much heartache and wasted time that it's untrue - but there is still a tendency for people to jump right into to coding without thinking "how will this work". And you should think "How will this work" in many ways. These seven diagram ...
2485How do I set up a constant in Python?
You may think of values like pi being a constant, but in Python they're really just another object that's defined in the namespace of the module from which they're loaded! So ... >>> import math >>> math.pi 3.1415926535897931 >>> math.pi *= 4 >>> math.pi 12.566370614359172 You are fully entitled to ...
2407Testing code in Python - doctest, unittest and others
The doctest and unittest modules of Python allow you to provide test harnesses for your classes / packages. Designing applications from the bottom up, you'll want to ensure that each of your code levels works and works well. You'll want to provide an example of what it should do for the next level ...
2363Alpaca Case or Camel Case
A very first practical program on our Learning to Program in Python course that started today. Even at this early stage, we teach things like good practise in variable naming - standards such as using a consistent case (e.g. camel case where each intermediate words starts with a capital). I was looking ...
1181Good Programming practise - where to initialise variables
It's a good idea to initialise your variables directly before you use them for the first time if you're going to use them as accumulators. By accumulator I mean that you're going to write assignments such as:   $n += 4; # Perl   incr notepad; # Tcl   lappend flcodes [lindex ...
945Code quality counts
We're celebrating Geekmas this weekend ... and we've got a full place. Plus others who are coming in for the day. Really good session yesterday on the good DESIGN of an interactive (scripted) web site that "mines" user information to give a tailored presentation, and a great intro by Paddy to Python's ...
836Build on what you already have with OO
If I start recalling a "Goons" sketch, then I'll show my age .... but never mind. It was a RERUN that I saw ;-) Spike Milligan is counting votes at an election. "Two thousand, six hundred and forty two". "Two thousand, six hundred and forty three". "Two thousand, six hundred and forty four" ... "Would ...
340Code and code maintainance efficiency
Three maxims of coding and system development; I'm reminded of these this week as I run a PHP course which is heavily biased towards good coding standards / writing robust and maintainable web sites, but they apply to other languages / coding systems too! "If you find yourself repeating something, then ...
Examples from our training material
cin   Caching design pattern
cincontrol   Caching design pattern / Control
constant.py   Constants in Python
counter   inheriting from a standard data type object
ddd.py   Good practise tips and documentation string
novel   Traffic survey - Python and Objects
sob   Data for novel and story examples
story   Traffic survey - Python without Objects
t6   inherited and associated / composite objects
t7   completion of example t6 - add factory, comparator, etc
tree.py   Recursion and special collections in Python
Background information
Some modules are available for download as a sample of our material or under an Open Training Notes License for free download from [here].
Topics covered in this module
Review of OO design techniques.
Review of OO facilities in Python.
Naming conventions in Python.
How to arrange your classes, modules and packages.
Documentation and code control.
Complete learning
If you are looking for a complete course and not just a information on a single subject, visit our Listing and schedule page.

Well House Consultants specialise in training courses in Ruby, Lua, Python, Perl, PHP, and MySQL. We run Private Courses throughout the UK (and beyond for longer courses), and Public Courses at our training centre in Melksham, Wiltshire, England. It's surprisingly cost effective to come on our public courses - even if you live in a different country or continent to us.

We have a technical library of over 700 books on the subjects on which we teach. These books are available for reference at our training centre.

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