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For 2023 - we are now fully retired from IT training.
We have made many, many friends over 25 years of teaching about Python, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, Java, C and C++ - and MySQL, Linux and Solaris/SunOS too. Our training notes are now very much out of date, but due to upward compatability most of our examples remain operational and even relevant ad you are welcome to make us if them "as seen" and at your own risk.

Lisa and I (Graham) now live in what was our training centre in Melksham - happy to meet with former delegates here - but do check ahead before coming round. We are far from inactive - rather, enjoying the times that we are retired but still healthy enough in mind and body to be active!

I am also active in many other area and still look after a lot of web sites - you can find an index ((here))
Disc Partitioning

When installing Linux, you're able to choose how to split up (partition or slice) your disc(s) and which part of the file system to put on each. Here's a partitioning algorithm that we came up with for an organisation that has a variety of servers.

WHAT do you want on separate partitions?

/ - duh, yes, must be a partition name
swap - ANY chance of running out of memory, have a swap area!
/var - if mail system, printer controller, etc
/usr - if you're looking to share /usr (not likely these days); also worth
separating if you're doing a dual boot and both OS's need to start before the the 4Gb mark on the disk.
/usr/local - if you'll be adding lots of extra s/w and want to upgrade the OS later on without reloading all your local extras OR if you want to NFS / Samba share your /usr/local
/tmp - if you have lots of meaty applications that write / read huge temporary files
/home - if you have any local users apart from admin's accounts
/boot - if you're acting as a tftp boot server; also perhaps because grub is here

RULE in general - use separate partitions for things that have different backup strategies, and things that you don't want to crash the system when the users get them full.

How big should they be?

$64000 question

/ - Need not be too big - 2Gb should be twice what you need
/usr - Build is typically 2Gb to 7Gb - allow, say, 9Gb.
/tmp - Allow, say 2Gb. If you're running an A0 pixel mapped plotter though, you'll need a *** of a lot more space, or if you're doing fluid dynamics, seismic oil data processing.
/var - Allow 1Gb PLUS space for mail, print queues, etc - see /tmp
/usr/local - How much extra s/w are you likely to add? Allow 2 or 3 Gb - lots of s/w, especially Java to add? Allow an extra 4Gb on top ...
swap - authorities say "twice the size of your memory"
/home - as much space as you have left!

Add together the various amounts if you're not having a separate partition for each ... so

Typical system, 512 Mb memory

/ - 2 + 9 + 2 + 3 = 16 Gb
swap - 1 Gb
/var - 3 Gb
/home - the rest

* Do NOT put swap at the very end!
* Multidisc systems - spread swap between all discs with fastest r.p.m.s
* Tend to have / and swap as primary.
(written 2006-04-30, updated 2006-06-05)

Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
A191 - Web Application Deployment - Installing Linux
  [1288] Linux run states, shell special commands, and directory structures - (2007-08-03)
  [1292] DHCP automatic IP address v Static IP - (2007-08-06)
  [3632] What is Make? - (2012-03-02)

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Handling huge data files in PHP
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Disc Partitioning
Erin Brent - rest in peace
Copying files and preserving ownership
Iterators - expressions tha change each time you call them
Minature Cyclists only - limited headroom
As I walked in to Oxford
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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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