Training, Open Source Programming Languages

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Our email: info@wellho.net • Phone: 01144 1225 708225

 
For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
File permissions of Linux and Unix systems

What does -rwxr-x--- mean in the output of a Linux ls (list symbols) command?

The first character indicates the type of file system object that the line describes, and the commonly found characters are:
-A regular file
dA directory
lA symbolic link


You then have three groups of three characters, which describe who can do what with the file system object:
First 3 positionsWhat the User (owner) can do
Middle 3 positionsWhat the Group members can do
Final 3 positionsWhat the Other users of the system can do


Within each of the three groups, read as follows:
r or -w or -x or -
First characterAn r indicates Readable
Second characterA w indicates Writeable
Third characterAn x indicates eXecutable for a plain file or aXessible for a directory

If you see an s or a t (lower case) in the third position, it inicates that the "x" is set, and conveys additional information for the administrator. If you see an S or a T (upper case), it indicates that there is NOT an X set.

Note that write permission to a directory allows the person with that permission to add files to the directory and delete files from within it, even if they don't have any access right at all to the actual file being deleted.
(written 2005-08-31, updated 2006-06-05)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
A161 - Web Application Deployment - Users and Groups
  [409] Functions and commands with dangerous names - (2005-08-11)
  [683] Supporting users on Linux and Unix - (2006-04-13)
  [1592] Setting up a new user - Linux or Unix - (2008-03-26)
  [1619] User and Group settings for Apache httpd web server - (2008-04-22)
  [1650] Looking for files with certain characteristics (Linux / Unix) - (2008-05-22)
  [1773] The Longest Possible Day - (2008-08-26)
  [1902] sstrwxrwxrwx - Unix and Linux file permissions - (2008-11-23)
  [1904] Ruby, Perl, Linux, MySQL - some training notes - (2008-11-23)
  [2103] Ask the Tutor - Open Source forum - (2009-03-25)
  [2117] Choosing a railway station fairly in PHP - (2009-04-04)
  [2203] Always use su with minus. And where do programs come from? - (2009-05-27)
  [2301] Mistaken identity? - (2009-07-22)
  [2491] Root is root for a reason! - (2009-11-03)
  [2639] su or su - ... what is the difference? - (2010-02-17)
  [4045] Linux Web Server - User Roles, User Accounts, and shared administration - (2013-03-16)

A101 - Web Application Deployment - Linux -An Introduction For Users
  [73] vi - full circle - (2004-10-04)
  [74] pushd and popd - (2004-10-05)
  [152] Aladdin, or careful what you wish. - (2004-12-15)
  [249] An easy way out - (2005-03-17)
  [430] Linux commands - some basics - (2005-08-31)
  [593] Finding where the disc space has gone - (2006-02-06)
  [659] Web Application Components - (2006-03-28)
  [679] More or less on the edge of the page - (2006-04-11)
  [703] Copying files and preserving ownership - (2006-04-28)
  [710] Linux training Glasgow, Python programming course Dundee - (2006-05-05)
  [711] THE home directory or MY home directory - (2006-05-06)
  [749] Cottage industry or production line data handling methods - (2006-06-07)
  [984] Cardinal numbers and magic numbers - (2006-12-14)
  [1012] Moving files between Windows / DOS and Linux / Unix - (2006-12-30)
  [1013] Copy multiple files - confusing error message from cp - (2006-12-30)
  [1068] ls -l report, Linux / Unix - types and permssions - (2007-02-06)
  [1259] Where am I and how did I get here? - (2007-07-05)
  [1287] Work and play at Well House Manor - Football and Shell Shortcuts - (2007-08-02)
  [1288] Linux run states, shell special commands, and directory structures - (2007-08-03)
  [1366] awk - a powerful data extraction and manipulation tool - (2007-09-25)
  [1408] Wireless hotel tips - FTP and Skype connections failing - (2007-10-26)
  [1438] Copy and paste / cut and paste and other vi techniques - (2007-11-20)
  [1527] Selecting file names in a shell - one word or another - (2008-02-02)
  [1651] ls command - favourite options - (2008-05-23)
  [1764] Yank and Push - copy and move in vi - (2008-08-21)
  [1803] FTP passive mode - a sometimes cure for upload hangs - (2008-09-20)
  [1893] Some Linux and Unix tips - (2008-11-18)
  [1897] Keeping on an even keel - (2008-11-21)
  [2201] Running straight from the jar, but not from a tar - (2009-05-26)
  [2299] How much space does my directory take - Linux - (2009-07-20)
  [2300] What does x on a linux directory mean? - (2009-07-21)
  [2479] Accidentally typed ci rather than vi? - (2009-10-27)
  [2494] Making Linux Politically correct - (2009-11-06)
  [2636] Linux - useful tips including history and file name completion - (2010-02-15)
  [2831] Recording (a macro) in vi - (2010-06-27)
  [3179] Oops - I typed ci not vi, and have lost my file ... - (2011-02-21)
  [3256] Displaying a directory or file system tree - Linux - (2011-04-22)
  [3791] The Kernel, Shells and Daemons. Greek Gods in computing - (2012-07-01)
  [3819] Packing a tar, jar or war file - best practise - (2012-07-26)


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New print centre for our manuals
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Expect for Windows
Through public transport connection, Chippenham to Salisbury, to cease
FTP - how to make the right transfers
New print centre for our manuals
File permissions of Linux and Unix systems
Charlie on Monday
Swindon - Chippenham - Melksham - Trowbridge - Westbury train service
The Melksham train - a button is pushed
Robust checking of data entered by users
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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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