Training, Open Source Programming Languages

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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
Single and double quotes strings in Perl - what is the difference?

In Perl, there's usually more than one way of doing it ...

If you're writing a string of text into your program, your first possibility is to use single quotes - in which case you're writing a literal string with everything between the single quote chartacters included exactly in the string. And your second possibility is to use double quotes - which are actually an operator, and \ $ and @ characters within the string trigger "escaping" of the following characters, and inclusion of variable contents.

Here's some code to show that:

  $name = Bob;
  @choice = ("Tea",'Coffee');
 
  print 'Here is $name choosing from @choice\n';
  print "\n";
  print "Here is $name choosing from @choice\n";


And that runs as follows:

  munchkin:ap3 grahamellis$ perl asy
  Here is $name choosing from @choice\n
  Here is Bob choosing from Tea Coffee
  munchkin:ap3 grahamellis$


If you really want to include a " within a "'d string, you can use \", but you shouldn't be able to use the same technique to include a ' within a 'd string (in practise, there's an exception made that lets you do so!!). However, all this extra quoting of delimiters gets messy so you can choose your own special characters as the delimiter using the qq notation for a double quoted string and the q notation for a single quoted string:

  $name = Bob;
  @choice = (qq!Tea!,q%Coffee%);
 
  print q#Here is $name choosing from @choice\n#;
  print qq"\n";
  print qq(Here is $name choosing from @choice\n);


Output is identical to what you saw just above. Just about any special character may be used - even the # which is normally used for comments; if you use an open bracket or brace, then the closing character should be the opposing bracket of brace - otherwise the close is the same as the open. And your choice of special character only lasts for the one string.

Want still more flexibilty? You can use a "here document" where the delimiter used is an entire word of your choice! There's a previous article about here documents ... [here] ;-).
(written 2011-08-30)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
P212 - Perl - More on Character Strings
  [453] Commenting Perl regular expressions - (2005-09-30)
  [583] Remember to process blank lines - (2006-01-31)
  [586] Perl Regular Expressions - finding the position and length of the match - (2006-02-02)
  [597] Storing a regular expression in a perl variable - (2006-02-09)
  [608] Don't expose your regular expressions - (2006-02-15)
  [737] Coloured text in a terminal from Perl - (2006-05-29)
  [928] C++ and Perl - why did they do it THAT way? - (2006-11-16)
  [943] Matching within multiline strings, and ignoring case in regular expressions - (2006-11-25)
  [1222] Perl, the substitute operator s - (2007-06-08)
  [1230] Commenting a Perl Regular Expression - (2007-06-12)
  [1251] Substitute operator / modifiers in Perl - (2007-06-28)
  [1305] Regular expressions made easy - building from components - (2007-08-16)
  [1336] Ignore case in Regular Expression - (2007-09-08)
  [1510] Handling Binary data (.gif file example) in Perl - (2008-01-17)
  [1727] Equality and looks like tests - Perl - (2008-07-29)
  [1735] Finding words and work boundaries (MySQL, Perl, PHP) - (2008-08-03)
  [1947] Perl substitute - the e modifier - (2008-12-16)
  [2230] Running a piece of code is like drinking a pint of beer - (2009-06-11)
  [2379] Making variables persistant, pretending a database is a variable and other Perl tricks - (2009-08-27)
  [2657] Want to do a big batch edit? Nothing beats Perl! - (2010-03-01)
  [2801] Binary data handling with unpack in Perl - (2010-06-10)
  [2834] Teaching examples in Perl - third and final part - (2010-06-27)
  [2874] Unpacking a Perl string into a list - (2010-07-16)
  [2877] Further more advanced Perl examples - (2010-07-19)
  [2993] Arrays v Lists - what is the difference, why use one or the other - (2010-10-10)
  [3059] Object Orientation in an hour and other Perl Lectures - (2010-11-18)
  [3100] Looking ahead and behind in Regular Expressions - double matching - (2010-12-23)
  [3322] How much has Perl (and other languages) changed? - (2011-06-10)
  [3332] DNA to Amino Acid - a sample Perl script - (2011-06-24)
  [3546] The difference between dot (a.k.a. full stop, period) and comma in Perl - (2011-12-09)
  [3630] Serialsing and unserialising data for storage and transfer in Perl - (2012-02-28)
  [3650] Possessive Regular Expression Matching - Perl, Objective C and some other languages - (2012-03-12)
  [3707] Converting codons via Amino Acids to Proteins in Perl - (2012-04-25)
  [3927] First match or all matches? Perl Regular Expressions - (2012-11-19)
  [4452] Binary data handling - Python and Perl - (2015-03-09)

P205 - Perl - Initial String Handling
  [31] Here documents - (2004-08-28)
  [254] x operator in Perl - (2005-03-22)
  [324] The backtick operator in Python and Perl - (2005-05-25)
  [970] String duplication - x in Perl, * in Python and Ruby - (2006-12-07)
  [987] Ruby v Perl - interpollating variables - (2006-12-15)
  [1195] Regular Express Primer - (2007-05-20)
  [1608] Underlining in Perl and Python - the x and * operator in use - (2008-04-12)
  [1849] String matching in Perl with Regular Expressions - (2008-10-20)
  [1860] Seven new intermediate Perl examples - (2008-10-30)
  [2798] Perl - skip the classics and use regular expressions - (2010-06-08)
  [2816] Intelligent Matching in Perl - (2010-06-18)
  [2832] Are you learning Perl? Some more examples for you! - (2010-06-27)
  [2963] Removing the new line with chop or chomp in Perl - what is the difference? - (2010-09-21)
  [3005] Lots of ways of doing it in Perl - printing out answers - (2010-10-19)
  [3547] Using Perl to generate multiple reports from a HUGE file, efficiently - (2011-12-09)
  [3548] Dark mornings, dog update, and Python and Lua courses before Christmas - (2011-12-10)
  [3770] Sample answers to training course exercises - available on our web site - (2012-06-21)


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Handling binary data in Perl is easy!
Some other Articles
User defined sorting and other uses of callbacks in Tcl and Tk
Passing back multiple results in Tcl - upvar and uplevel
If its Sunday, must it be Weymouth?
Handling binary data in Perl is easy!
Single and double quotes strings in Perl - what is the difference?
A review of the Summer Sunday extra trains on the TransWilts line
When variables behave differently - Tie in Perl
Journey home by public transport for a Bank Holiday
Perl - a quick reminder and revision. Test yourself!
Not multidimentional arrays - but lists of lists. Much more flexible. Perl!
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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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