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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
Setting your user_agent in PHP - telling back servers who you are

If your web page pulls information in from other sites, you'll be turning your web server into a client (browser) to those other sites - and just as your web server can identify the type of browser it's answering via the $_SERVER[HTTP_USER_AGENT] variable, so can the remote server.

The default user agent setting that PHP sends out is an empty string - it does not identify itself - and that will sometimes cause the server it's contacting to provide a limited response, or even (as I have see in one case) send back code 403 "Forbidden"s. So it's not a good idea to leave this default if you're contacting a wide range of web sites - for example if you're writing a crawler.

PHP's user_agent parameter can be set outside your application via lines in the httpd.conf file (for the whole of your site), or within a .htaccess file (for all applications in and below a specific web site directory). You can also set it on a "per application" basis within the application - for example:
  ini_set("user_agent","Well House Robot - see http://www.wellho.net");

If you shouldn't use the default, then what should you use? I would suggest that you strongly and proudly announce your robot / site, and give anyone who finds you in their log files a link through which they learn who you are, and why you are on their site. And you should - of course - respect their robots.txt file too [see here].

It's also possible for you to set the user_agent to the same string that would be used by a browser - in other words, it's possible for you to pretend to be Chrome, Firefox or Explorer. If you are writing a script to test a site automatically and with permission of the site owner, then go ahead and do this - but if you pretend to be a browser you're not when visiting lots of other people's site, some of them may get rather upset with you - in effect, you'll be considered to be forging a browser's signature.

There's an example of each type of user agent string in use, and how it appeared in the log files on our server when I ran it, [here].
(written 2010-12-18)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
H307 - PHP - Web2 and caching
  [1633] Changing a screen saver from a web page (PHP, Perl, OSX) - (2008-05-06)
  [1647] Exchange Rates - PHP with your prices in your users currency - (2008-05-19)
  [1733] memcached - overview, installation, example of use in PHP - (2008-08-02)
  [1812] Starting Ajax - easy example of browser calling up server data - (2008-09-27)
  [1813] Ajax - going Asyncronous and what it means - (2008-09-28)
  [1814] Javascript/HTML example, dynamic server monitor - (2008-09-28)
  [1926] Flash (client) to PHP (server) - example - (2008-12-06)
  [1995] Automated server heartbeat and health check - (2009-01-16)
  [2196] New Example - cacheing results in PHP for faster loading - (2009-05-24)
  [2321] Uploading and Downloading files - changing names (Perl and PHP) - (2009-08-04)
  [2545] Scraping content for your own page via PHP - (2009-12-21)
  [3029] PHP data sources - other web servers, large data flows, and the client (browser) - (2010-11-04)
  [3186] How to add a customised twitter feed to your site - (2011-02-27)
  [3458] On this day ... one PHP script with three uses - (2011-09-26)
  [3955] Building up from a small PHP setup to an enterprise one - (2012-12-16)
  [3999] Handling failures / absences of your backend server nicely - (2013-02-08)
  [4055] Using web services to access you data - JSON and RESTful services - (2013-03-29)
  [4075] Further recent PHP examples - (2013-04-28)
  [4106] Web server efficiency - saving repetition through caches - (2013-05-30)
  [4136] How do I post automatically from a PHP script to my Twitter account? - (2013-07-10)
  [4627] Caching results in an object for efficiency - avoiding re-calculation - (2016-01-20)

H306 - PHP - Who is your visitor?
  [1736] Current visitors from around the world - PHP - (2008-08-04)
  [2135] What features does this visitors browser support? (PHP) - (2009-04-22)
  [2343] World Flags in your PHP pages - (2009-08-10)
  [2380] Object Oriented programming - a practical design example - (2009-08-27)
  [2667] Web page to telephone calls / links using an iPhone - (2010-03-08)
  [3946] Moving from a warning system to a control system - PHP, forum spammers - (2012-12-07)


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Learning Object Orientation in Perl through bananas and perhaps Moose
Making Perl class definitions more conventional and shorter
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The Christmas Season has arrived
Setting your user_agent in PHP - telling back servers who you are
How many toilet rolls - hotel inventory and useage
wxPython geometry - BoxSizer example
How do regular expressions work / Regular Expression diagrams
Matching to a string - what if it matches in many possible ways?
Python regular expressions - repeating, splitting, lookahead and lookbehind
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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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