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For 2021 - online Python 3 training - see ((here)).

Our plans were to retire in summer 2020 and see the world, but Coronavirus has lead us into a lot of lockdown programming in Python 3 and PHP 7.
We can now offer tailored online training - small groups, real tutors - works really well for groups of 4 to 14 delegates. Anywhere in the world; course language English.

Please ask about private 'maintenance' training for Python 2, Tcl, Perl, PHP, Lua, etc.
What does const mean? C and C++

If you declare a variable to be a const, you're telling the compiler that it's a read-only variable and that it won't be changed throughout its existance. A values that's passed in as a parameter to a function, for example, will be left alone until the function exits. That does not stop you from deriving other values from the variable or using it to make a decision - if you couldn't, there would be no point in passing it in to the function!

Here are two C++ methods taking a float into a function. In teh first case I have commented out the calculation that would change the incoming value as it lead to a compile time error.

void Hotel::setoccu(const float *inval) {
   // inval *= 0.9; // Compiler complain like sh**
   occrate = *inval * 0.9;
   }
 
void Hotel::setoccu(float inval) {
   inval *= 0.9; // Compiler won't complain like sh**
   occrate = inval;
   }


Why use const?
1. Efficiency of code / may run a bit quicker
2. Safety / provides an extra check to help the programmer
(written 2010-01-15)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
C234 - C and C based languages - Further C++ Object Oriented features
  [801] Simple polymorphism example - C++ - (2006-07-14)
  [802] undefined reference to typeinfo - C++ error message - (2006-07-15)
  [831] Comparison of Object Oriented Philosophy - Python, Java, C++, Perl - (2006-08-13)
  [1159] It can take more that one plus one to get two. - (2007-04-22)
  [1819] Calling base class constructors - (2008-10-03)
  [2004] Variable Scope in C++ - (2009-01-22)
  [2005] Variables and pointers and references - C and C++ - (2009-01-23)
  [2673] Multiple Inheritance in C++ - a complete example - (2010-03-12)
  [2717] The Multiple Inheritance Conundrum, interfaces and mixins - (2010-04-11)
  [2849] What are C++ references? Why use them? - (2010-07-02)
  [3057] Lots of things to do with and within a C++ class - (2010-11-16)
  [3069] Strings, Garbage Collection and Variable Scope in C++ - (2010-11-25)
  [3124] C++ - putting the language elements together into a program - (2011-01-08)
  [3238] Bradshaw, Ben and Bill. And some C and C++ pointers and references too. - (2011-04-09)
  [3430] Sigils - the characters on the start of variable names in Perl, Ruby and Fortran - (2011-09-10)
  [3509] Operator Overloading, Exceptions, Pointers, References and Templates in C++ - new examples from our courses - (2011-11-06)
  [3982] Using a vector within an object - C++ - (2013-01-19)
  [4366] Changing what operators do on objects - a comparison across different programming languages - (2014-12-26)
  [4377] Designing a base class and subclasses, and their extension, in C++ - (2015-01-01)
  [4559] When do I use the this keyword in C++? - (2015-10-29)

C201 - C and C based languages - C Language Fundamentals
  [888] Turning C from source to a running program - (2006-10-06)
  [1671] Compiling C programs with gcc - an overview - (2008-06-10)
  [2842] Staring a C course with Hello World - why? - (2010-06-30)
  [3120] Learning to write good programs in C and C++ - separating out repeated code - (2011-01-04)
  [3234] Your program - you just provide the filling in the sandwich - (2011-04-08)
  [3278] Do I need to initialise variables - programming in C, C++, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby or Java. - (2011-05-05)
  [3591] Integer types, and integer overflows, in C - (2012-01-25)
  [3917] BODMAS - the order a computer evaluates arithmetic expressions - (2012-11-09)
  [4324] Learning to program - variables and constants - (2014-11-22)
  [4555] Preprocessor directives in C and C++ - what they mean - (2015-10-27)
  [4566] C - why is slow to write and debug) but fast to run? - (2015-11-01)


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Complete teaching example - C++, inheritance, polymorphism
What does const mean? C and C++
Sharing variables between files of code in C - extern
Summary of Wiltshire Core Strategy responses
C Structs - what, how and why
The what and why of C pointers
Reading and writing files in C
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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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