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Some Linux and Unix tips

How to make a woman equal to a man

[trainee@easterton ~]$ man ls
[trainee@easterton ~]$ woman ls
-bash: woman: command not found
[trainee@easterton ~]$ alias woman=man
[trainee@easterton ~]$ woman ls
[trainee@easterton ~]$


In Linux and Unix, the man command gives you a manual page ... but there is no woman command. If you want to be politically correct, you can use alias to make woman equal to man

How big are my files v how big are my directories

[trainee@easterton jimbo]$ du -sk *
64244 httpd-2.0.63
5776 httpd-2.0.63.tar.gz
8 MyJava.class
8 MyJava.java
8 newfile
8 RevTempconv.java
15268 tomcat-connectors-1.2.26-src
1420 tomcat-connectors-1.2.26-src.tar.gz
[trainee@easterton jimbo]$ ls -l
total 7244
drwxr-xr-x 12 jimbo apache 4096 Apr 24 2008 httpd-2.0.63
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5896358 Apr 24 2008 httpd-2.0.63.tar.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 jimbo apache 430 Apr 24 2008 MyJava.class
-rw-r--r-- 1 jimbo apache 115 Apr 24 2008 MyJava.java
-rw-r--r-- 1 jimbo apache 6 Apr 23 2008 newfile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1557 Apr 24 2008 RevTempconv.java
drwxr-xr-x 9 jimbo apache 4096 Dec 21 2007 tomcat-connectors-1.2.26-src
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1442605 Apr 25 2008 tomcat-connectors-1.2.26-src.tar.gz
[trainee@easterton jimbo]$


The ls command reports on the size of each symbol in a directory, whereas the du reports on the size of each symbol and what it contains. This means that you should use du if you want to see how much a director contains, but ls if you're just interested in the size of the directory's header records!

Moving files and directories with multiple owners

[root@easterton ~]# cd /home
[root@easterton home]# mkdir ../gosh
[root@easterton home]# tar cf - | (cd ../gosh; tar xpf -)
[root@easterton home]# tar cf - cloudy dave gordon| (cd ../gosh; tar xpf -)
[root@easterton home]# ls -l ../gosh
total 32
drwxr-xr-x 2 cloudy apache 4096 Nov 6 18:09 cloudy
drwxr-xr-x 4 dave dave 4096 Jun 24 10:07 dave
drwxr-xr-x 3 gordon apache 4096 Nov 18 14:02 gordon
[root@easterton home]#


If you're moving a part of your file system around on a Unix or Linux system, you might be inclined to use cp -r and indeed that will work well if you want the ownership of the copy transferred to the user making the copy. But if you want to copy a part of the file tree and preserver ownership, you must to so as root, and use the tar command. In the example above, we have output from tar so stdout, then piped into another tar in another directory, unpacking with the -p option to preserve ownership.

These examples ... from our Linux Basics and Linux Admin courses - run yesterday and today, and next running early next month ...
[trainee@easterton ~]$
(written 2008-11-18)

 
Associated topics are indexed as below, or enter http://melksh.am/nnnn for individual articles
A101 - Web Application Deployment - Linux -An Introduction For Users
  [3819] Packing a tar, jar or war file - best practise - (2012-07-26)
  [3791] The Kernel, Shells and Daemons. Greek Gods in computing - (2012-07-01)
  [3256] Displaying a directory or file system tree - Linux - (2011-04-22)
  [3179] Oops - I typed ci not vi, and have lost my file ... - (2011-02-21)
  [2831] Recording (a macro) in vi - (2010-06-27)
  [2636] Linux - useful tips including history and file name completion - (2010-02-15)
  [2494] Making Linux Politically correct - (2009-11-06)
  [2479] Accidentally typed ci rather than vi? - (2009-10-27)
  [2300] What does x on a linux directory mean? - (2009-07-21)
  [2299] How much space does my directory take - Linux - (2009-07-20)
  [2203] Always use su with minus. And where do programs come from? - (2009-05-27)
  [2201] Running straight from the jar, but not from a tar - (2009-05-26)
  [1904] Ruby, Perl, Linux, MySQL - some training notes - (2008-11-23)
  [1902] sstrwxrwxrwx - Unix and Linux file permissions - (2008-11-23)
  [1897] Keeping on an even keel - (2008-11-21)
  [1803] FTP passive mode - a sometimes cure for upload hangs - (2008-09-20)
  [1764] Yank and Push - copy and move in vi - (2008-08-21)
  [1651] ls command - favourite options - (2008-05-23)
  [1527] Selecting file names in a shell - one word or another - (2008-02-02)
  [1438] Copy and paste / cut and paste and other vi techniques - (2007-11-20)
  [1408] Wireless hotel tips - FTP and Skype connections failing - (2007-10-26)
  [1366] awk - a powerful data extraction and manipulation tool - (2007-09-25)
  [1288] Linux run states, shell special commands, and directory structures - (2007-08-03)
  [1287] Work and play at Well House Manor - Football and Shell Shortcuts - (2007-08-02)
  [1259] Where am I and how did I get here? - (2007-07-05)
  [1068] ls -l report, Linux / Unix - types and permssions - (2007-02-06)
  [1013] Copy multiple files - confusing error message from cp - (2006-12-30)
  [1012] Moving files between Windows / DOS and Linux / Unix - (2006-12-30)
  [984] Cardinal numbers and magic numbers - (2006-12-14)
  [749] Cottage industry or production line data handling methods - (2006-06-07)
  [711] THE home directory or MY home directory - (2006-05-06)
  [710] Linux training Glasgow, Python programming course Dundee - (2006-05-05)
  [703] Copying files and preserving ownership - (2006-04-28)
  [679] More or less on the edge of the page - (2006-04-11)
  [659] Web Application Components - (2006-03-28)
  [593] Finding where the disc space has gone - (2006-02-06)
  [431] File permissions of Linux and Unix systems - (2005-08-31)
  [430] Linux commands - some basics - (2005-08-31)
  [249] An easy way out - (2005-03-17)
  [152] Aladdin, or careful what you wish. - (2004-12-15)
  [74] pushd and popd - (2004-10-05)
  [73] vi - full circle - (2004-10-04)

A162 - Web Application Deployment - Backups and File System Management
  [4481] Extracting data from backups to restore selected rows from MySQL tables - (2015-05-01)
  [4405] Backup procedures - via backup server - (2015-01-24)
  [4400] Commenting out an echo killed my bash backup script - (2015-01-19)
  [4390] Checking MySQL database backups have worked (not failed) - (2015-01-10)
  [4115] More or less back - what happened to our server the other day - (2013-06-14)
  [4063] Backups by crossover between network centres - setting up automatic scp transfers - (2013-04-13)
  [4056] An overpractical test of our backup strategy! - (2013-03-30)
  [1801] Will your backups work if you have to restore them? - (2008-09-18)
  [1765] Dialects of English and Unix - (2008-08-21)
  [1648] The tourists guide to Linux - (2008-05-20)
  [1439] Linux / Unix - layout of operating system files - (2007-11-20)
  [1023] Finding public writeable things on your linux file system - (2007-01-06)
  [754] tar, jar, war, ear, sar files - (2006-06-10)
  [735] Boys will be boys, saved by Ubuntu - (2006-05-27)
  [554] What backup is adequate? - (2006-01-04)
  [334] Symbolic links and hard links - (2005-06-02)
  [153] Linux - where to put swap space - (2004-12-16)


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This is a page archived from The Horse's Mouth at http://www.wellho.net/horse/ - the diary and writings of Graham Ellis. Every attempt was made to provide current information at the time the page was written, but things do move forward in our business - new software releases, price changes, new techniques. Please check back via our main site for current courses, prices, versions, etc - any mention of a price in "The Horse's Mouth" cannot be taken as an offer to supply at that price.

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